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The South Australian Naturalist 

The Journal of the Field Naturalists' Section of the Royal 

Society of South Australia and of the South Australian 
Aquarium Society. 

VOL X., 

No. 1 


The M 

The PI 



&— 9 

11 is 

- ) 16—20 

The authors of papers are responsible for the facta 
recorded and opinions expressed. 

Address of the Section: C/o Boyal Society's Booms, Institute 
Building;. North Terrace, Adelaide. 


nsneu \j\ai 

trie Codv— NINEPENCE 

Obtainable from Cole's Book Arcade, No. 14 Bundle Street, 


Felstead & Omsby, Print, Gilbert Place, Adelaide. 'Phone C. 1531 


rt M. Hale. 

Vice-Chairmen— Messrs. A. J. Morison and Rev. H. A. Gunter. 

Hon. Secretary— Mr. E. H. Ising. 

IFoft. Assistant Secretary— Miss J. M. Murray. 

Hon. Treasurer — Mr. F. Trigg. 

Hon. Magaz Roeger. 

Hon. Librarian — Miss M. Roeger. 

Hon. Press Correspondent — Mr. D. J. McNamara. 

Professor J. B. Cleland. Messrs J. F Bailey, W. H. Selway, J. A. Hogan, 
T. W. : . Dr. C. I 1IK J 


Fauna and Flora Protection Com 
Professor J. B. Cleland, Dr. C. Fenner, E. Ashby W. H 

Selway, J. M. Black, J. F. Bailey, A. M. Lea, F. Angel, W. Champion Hackett, 
B. B, Beck, J. Neil McG:lp, J. Sutton, W. J. Kimber, Captain S. A. White 
and Mr. J. F. L. Mac i 

Hon. Auditors— Messrs W D. Reed, F.C.P.A., and A. J. Morison. 
"The South Australian Naturalist" — Hon. Editor, Mr. Wm. Ham, F.R.E.S. 

Address: University, Adelaide. 


Dec IS. — Outer Harbor. ' I m. Dredging 

Harvey Johnston and Mr. H. M. Hale. 
Feb. 16. — Outer H Train, 1.35 p.m. Dredging. Leade 

W. J. K 

Leaders, Prof. T. 



South Australian Naturalist. 

Vol. X. NOVEMBER, 1928. No. 1, 


By ). B. Cleland, M.D. 

The native plants still to be Found in the neighbourhood of 
Adelaide have not escaped the notice of recent botanists. Yfr. 
J. Al. P>lack. in an early number of this journal (Vol. I. No. 5, 
1^9 28), under the title of" "The Primitive Flora of Adelaide"', not- 
ed 27 species at that date. Later Mr. E. H. lsing, under the 
heading iv List of Native Plants growing in. the Railway Reserve 
at Mile End" (Vol. V., No. 2. Feb. 1924), added 13 more and 
supplemented this in November of the same year (Vol. VI., No. 1) 
with 6 1 Hither species, bringing the total to 46. Tn the present 
communication (Part T) a few general observations will be made 
with "indications of whore some species of native plants mac still 
be found and this will be followed by two length} excerpts des- 
criptive ol the botanical features of the area in the early days of 
the Province. In the second part, a more systematic attempt 
will be made to record where native plants may still be found, 
supplementing the information alreach known. 

The original flora has disappeared for the most part over tht 
area bounded on the one hand by the Gulf from Brighton to 
Outer Harbour and on the other by the foothills' of the Mt. Lofty 
Rajage. On the fertile plains cultivation first destroyed the ord- 
inal plants and now houses are replacing the fields of corn, orch- 
ards and vineyards. The primeval flora remains almost undis- 
turbed only in and behind the sandhills by the coast, on the 
.■^ah-marshes and alone the estuarinc creeks with their paper- 
bark tea-tree and mangroves. A4ore or less extensive relics are 
(o be seen in the Reedbeds. in the Pinery on the eastern side ©1 
the Port River between Alberton and the (Irange. in a small 
area of scrub with mallee near Enfield, in private properties abut- 


the foothills and slightly along the River T 

orrens and the 

forrens Lake. A few Red Gums (Eucalyptus rosirata) still re 

tdelmde Plains. 

re at 




nam near watercourses as at the Reedbeds, at Fullarton and 
>urnside. Some Peppjarjj&int Gyms (E. odorata) still survive at 
the Blaei rdrdfet, Fullarton and Beaumont and occasional Yellow 
' mms (E. leucoxylon) at the latter place. Wallaby Crass (Dan- 
ihonia penicillata) may be found in the newer eastern suburb?. 
! wo species ol Stipa, Kangaroo Grass, Lomandra glauca and 
Acacia obliqua occur on Beaumont Common. Vittadhna- aiistra- 
lis (in two forms) and Oxalh corniculata are still met with it, 
fields near Beaumont 

On the footpath o! Fullarton road, beside the galvanized fence 
ol the Fullarton laundry, is still to be seen a small patch of the 
sedge, Cyperus vaginatus. From this we can reconstruct to 
some extent the appearance of this spot when Adelaide was found- 
ed. The seo!*>e snows that there is still some moisture present 
Evidently originally it was semi-swampy, probably with some 
tea-tree (Lc ptoi bcrmu m) beside the shallow water. In the 
southern part ol Knoxville there still remains a small area which 
becomes boggy in wet weather. Draining from this, till 
was a watercourse that had become very deep from erosion into 
the clay soil. As shown by some saline incrustation, the water 
contains salts of some kind which account for the rather bare 
aspect around. Being useless for building purposes this area has 
been made into a reserve. Triglockhi striata is still found growing- 
nere as well as the common Spergularia rubra. The 
j>rass GlyceHa ^strict a is also cpute abundant. There is a small 
area of swampy soil from a spring just north ol St. Saviour's 
Church, at Glen Osmond. Cyperus vaginatus flourished here til! 
recently trampled out. The soil below this, west of the Portrush 
:oad, as shown b) recent sewerage excavations, is black and 
peaty-looking thfough several fee! ol thickness. Water from a 
spring finds its way into the gutter on the north-east side of the 
( ilcn Osmond road. This J ear, bulrushes (Typ'ha avgust'ijolia) 
rame up in the gutter. The sweet-scented liliaceous Dichopogon 
was common thirty years ago in the Park Lands near the Adelaide 
Race-course, but seems to have disappeared. Bacrhaina diffusa 
has turned up in a garden at Beaumont, probably a rare example 

lant becoming 

a weed 

and extending its habitat 

of a native 

Doubtless a few further examples of survivors, apart from the 
localities already speciallv mentioned, will be found on searching- 
but they must be few. 

What records exist as to the plant covering ol the extensive 
plains between the Reedbeds and the Mt. Lofty Range when 
Adelaide Mas chosen as the site of the capital city? Were the 

plains chief!} 

erassv o 

r shrubbv. heavily timbered or lightly cov 

A. NAT., VOL. X. 
NOV., 1928. 

./. B. CUland, M.D. 3 

ered with trues, or with trees onl\ near water-courses: It is 
difficult to find any full description but we catch a glimpse in 
James Backhouse's "A Narrative of a Visit to the Australian 
Colonies" (1843). Backhouse was a Quaker, a keen and accur- 
ate observer and a good botanist. lie landed at Glenelg on Nov- 
ember 28th, 1837, when the Province was not yet a year old. In 
a light chaise cart he drove with his captain to Adelaide "over a 
Hal country, covered with grass, and scattered trees of Eucalyptus,. 
Acacia and Ba?iksia }> and received a kind welcome from John 
Barton Hack and his wife. On November 30th, lie walked seven 
mile;-- !.' Port Adelaide. "The way was over two level plains, 
separated by a slight sandy rise, covered with wood. The soil 
oi rlie plains was a reddish loam, having a slight admixture of 
sand and calcareous matter. The} were covered with tufted 
grass and small herbs. Among the latter was a species of Eryn- 
gium, a foot high, the leaves of which, are eaten with avidity by 
cattle, and some small, yellow-rlowered Everlastings (Helichrys- 
mu ayiculatumt) . Near Port Adelaide, the land becomes saline, 
:'nd produces crimson \l e s vmh riant lie ynuvi, oi three species 
(only two species. M. aequUaterale and M. australc, have been 
recorded as indigenous in South Australia— what was the third? 
Perhaps a mere succulent form oi the last named), along with 
numerous maritime shrubs. On a sandbank separating the plain 
from the sah marsh, which borders the creek or In let that forms 


of a species of Callitris } resembling 
ailed Pines, and have trunks 40 feet 

harbour, there are tree; 
Cypress. These are here c 
high, which are used for piles. Cayuarina quadrivalvis (C. stricta 
now), and Banksia australis (i.e. B. marginata), likewise grow 
here. On this bank there was an Orobanche, very like Orobanche 

inh or of England The salt marsh was covered with two 

species of Salicarnia, one of which was shrubby; interspersed 
among these, were two species of h'ranhema, one of which was 
bushy, about a foot high, and besprinkled with rosy, pink blos- 
soms, the size of a silver penny. (Only 7''. pavciflora is now 
known from this locality. Was ihere another species?)* The 
creek was margined with Mangrove, Avicennia tomentosa (A. 
officinalis) " 

On December 1st, Backhouse visited the Torrens, a stream 
about a foot deep and four feet wide, though with numerous pools 
in its course. "In some places there are reedy flats below the 
banks- of the river, which are of red loam, and are ornamented 
by a variety of shrubs and flowers; among which are Lavatera 
plrbeja, Verbena officinalis and two species of Goodenia (one 
would be (». cv&£a). 

Original Flora 

-"..A. WVi 

the . Idelmde Plains.. hqv 


The same clay, he walked a few miles towards the Mr. Lofty 
Range "on a plain which is several miles wide and extends from 
Cape Jarvis (sic) to the head of St. Vincent's Gulf: It is covered 
with grass, and intersected with belts of C aim-trees, and a sickle- 
Jeaved Acacia (probably ./. pyenantka). Some of the Kangaroo- 
grass was up to our elbows, and resembled two years' seed mead- 
ows, in England, in thickness; in many places, three tons of hay 
per acre, rnight be mown ofl it. I had not seen an}' thing to 
equal it, in this part of the world, except in some of the places 
that had not been browzed {sic), about Wellington Valley. Sev- 
eral small groups oi honest-looking, English labourers were mow- 
ing; but their work was only to be seen as little patches, on com- 
ing upon them." On this walk Backhouse probably reached 
somewhere about the position ol the present Port rush Road at 
"Toorak or Knoxville. Contrast the growth of Kangaroo-grass 
(Themeda triandra) that he saw with the houses now occupying 
this area, preceded In' holds oi corn and dairy pastures. 

On December 6th, Backhouse walked wit!) two of |. B. 
Hack's sons to a place called The Pines, about five miles from 
Adelaide. T think there is little doubt, lorn the plants lie 
noted there and the distance, that this is the place just, beyond 
Enfield visited in 1927 by the Field Naturalists 3 Section. The 
plants lie records are all still to be founds even to the <c Gum-tree 
of low growth with yellowish-white blossoms" which aptly des- 
cribes the mallee, Eucalyptus oleosa. Moreover, I know of no 
other likely situation that could be suggested as an alternative 
in which these plants might have been. To continue with Back- 
house's description: "This is a sandy tract, oi limited extent and 
slight elevation, differing considerably in its vegetation from the 
general features ol this district. Among the trees, is the species 
of CaiHiris, here called Pine: the timber it affords is said soon to 
decay: the tree is of pyramidal figure, and seems distinct from 
any we have before seen. We also met with a Gum-tree of low 
growth, witli yellowish-white blossoms (e\ identh Rucal-yptus 
oldosa\ an tixocarpns (K. spartea is found at Enfield), a Myo- 
porum {M. deserti is still there), a Cassia, and several other trees 
and shrubs that were new to us." 

On December 12th "we visited a sawyer's station, among the 
hills, in the direction of Mount Lofty. After crossing the grassy 
plains of Adelaide, the first hills, which are nearly at a right- 
angle with the Mount Lofty range, are of limestone, with here 
.and there, argillaceous rocks. These hills are crassN . with a 


Nov., 192b. 

/. li. Cleland, M.I). 

few trees, and a variety of plants. The next, hills are more 
purely argillaceous, and have trees scattered upon them, like 
the last, they run rather steeply, into valleys, which are well shel- 
tered, and some of them have small streams at the bottom. 
Adjoining, there are slate lulls, which have less abundant vegeta- 
tion, and more scrub. The next hills are of old red-sandstone, 
with poor, sandy soil, but abounding in gay, vegetable produc- 
tions, in forest, of various species of Eucalyptus ; among these is 
the useful Stringy-bark, which some parties are sawing for boards 
and splitting for fencing. The carriage from this place to Adelaide 
is easy, being all the way downhill. Beyond this point, the 
mountain range exhibits white quartz ; and persons who have 
passed Mount Lofty, which may be 1,500 to 2,000 feet above the 
level of the sea, say that between it and Mount Barker, the 
country is fine and woody, and that it also looks well toward 
Lake Alcxandrina. On returning, we descended into a deep val- 
iev, at the junction of one of the slate hills, with one of the arsril- 
laceous ones, of less slaty character, and found a waterfall of about 
100 feet, on a stream, called the White Hill Creek. (This must 
be the Waterfall Gully). Some of the hills, like the plains below, 
are covered with red loam, in w r hich there is line Kangaroo-grass 
(all now gone), that is green, notwithstanding the thermometer 
has, several times lately, risen to 107° in the shade. 

"A white-flowered Morna (I cannot suggest what this was) 
a downy, drooping flowered Pimelea (probably P. octophylla), 
a broad and a narrow-leaved Xanthorrhoea (X. scmvplana and X. 
quadra-rigid at a), and several other striking plants, were growing 
in the forest on the red sandstone. On the argillaceous hills. 
there was a shrub belonging (to) the Gent'ianae, with leaves re- 
sembling those of the Greater Periwinkle (possibly Logania vag- 
inalis), and a Pomaderris (Stylidium parvijolwm, probably), with 
pale leaves next to the heads of "flowers. Todea a\rica)m (T. bar- 
bard), Gramvitfis rutaejolius (Pleurosorus rutifolius), and some 
other ferns were also here. Upon the limestone hills, were a 
broad-leaved Goodenia {G. alfnflora .still grows on this limestonej, 
an Orobanche, and Lobelia pbbosa, this last is a singular annual., 
flowering after its leaves have faded/' 

Anol her glimpse of the covering of the Adelaide plains may 
be gained from J. W. Bull's, "Early Experiences of Colonial Life 
in South Australia" which, though published in 1878, describes 
events in the early days, the author having arrived in the second 
year after the proclamation of the province. It appears there was 

3.A. NAT., VOL, X. 

/. B. Cieland, MJ>. Nov., 1928. 

a considerable amount of cattle-stealing nor. many years after 
the foundation of Adelaide, and Sergeant-Major Alford and 
another officer were detailed to make a thorough search dis- 
guised as bushmen. Alter visiting the gullies north of Adelaide 
and going south as far as the Stun. River and folding nothing, the 
Sergeant-Major decided to make a cast of the plains round Adel- 
aide. On passing Dr. Everard near his home at the Black Forest, 
Alford was told that cattle had- been seen being driven down 
tiie Forest track. Bull here mentions that. at. the time he wrote 
(about 1878) on the opposite side of the road to the Ashford" 
Estate there were still a number of trees (oi Eucalyptus odorata 
chiefly), formerly part of the Black Forest, which, with the ex- 
ception of this, patch, has vanished, and the) are now the onb, 
remains oi that ancient and dense wood which extended Irom 
South-terrace towards Holdfast Bay, in many places having a 
thick undergrowth of scru'.>. The Sergeant-Major at this time 
decided to make a search and proceeding down a slight track 
for a mile anil a half came to a fallen tree across the track. 
Creeping through the thick bus!, for a mile or so. he came sud- 
denly on a stockyard with cattle and men. Pretending to have 
observed nothing and to be searching for cattle, Alford gradually 
retreated and finally rode away for help. He returned with one 
man late in the night to make a further inspection but their 
presence being detected by the men who were at work and who 
could be heard steeling their knives, the two had to make an 
assault and captured one man, the other three escaping. It 
will be evident from this account what a thick forest of peppermint 
gums and undergrowth must have existed then to enable this 
"cattle-duffing" to be carried on for so long in a place so near 
the infant capital. The meal thus obtained was apparently sold 
to ships in port. Alas, hardly a vestige now remains of these 
old trees. 


Please Note; The Librarian requests members to return all 
books as soon as possible before the end of the year. Books may 
be left with Mr. Beck, Cole's Book Arcade, or at the Rooms, with. 
slip enclosed showing name of member returning them. 

S.A. SAT., VOL. X. 

nov., 1928. 

South Australia* Shell Collectors' Club. 




The following shell families, among 
Studied by this Club, and quite a large 
were exhibited at various meetings: — 

others, were recently 
number of specimens 


Geological records state tha t shells ( dnm htidae) belonging 
to this Family attained thereir maximum development in the 
Jurassic period, and, n{ the man) genera living in that age, only 
a lew survived to the present day. Casual observation soon de- 
termines that these bivalves are to be placed in different category 
from those usually met with. Their thin, translucent, white valves 
gape widely at one end. allowing the siphons free exit. These brown 
tubes— which cannot be completely withdrawn into the shell — arc 
1 \ inches in length, eject a stream of water on being disturbed. 
h small cartilage socket is situated immediately under the beaks, 
supported by an oblique rib. Another distinctive feature is the 
right-angled groove or fissure extending from the beaks. 

Later/ruin creccina, Reeve, is plentiful in the Port Adelaide 
River, at a point known as Snowdon Beach. Lew tide discloses 
-vily a few loose dead valves lying about, but. on removing a 
layer of sand and mud. large numbers o\ living specimens may 
be collected. Tin siphons, which are partly clothed with an 
•extension of the periostracum, reach to the surface of the mud. 
When cleaned, these delicately fashioned pearly shells, taken 
from such an uninviting' habitat, present somewhat of a contrast 
to the usual order of things. 

■' 'crhlodt'sma angasij Crosse and Fischer, another member 
6* *jiC Family, is occasionally collected on eastern Yorke Pen- 
insula beaches measuring up to 3 inches in length. The valves 
of this fine shell show concentric growth lines, and generally have 
most of the characteristics of the former specimen, excepting that 
the right valve is comparatively Mat, while the left side decidely 


Several Crassatelld are recorded from South Australian wat- 
ers, including a large specimen of particular note — C. kingicola, 
Lamarck (1801). A typical shell from Port Lincoln harbor shows 
it to measure roughly 4 inches in length, 3 inches deep, and 2 
inches in width. As its name implies, it is heavy and solid, 
weighing i 1\ ozs. This shell is considerably attenuated poster- 
iorly — a line drawn through the umbo shows this to be as 3 to 1. 
The concerrtricallv striated valves— characteristic of the family — 

Vatme Flower Show 

s \. KAT.j vol. x. 
soy,, 1928. 

are covered with a thick brow:: periostracum, eroded at the umbo. 
The muscle scars are deeply pitted, the anterior oval shaped, and 
the posterior — | inch in diameter — rounded. These arc joined 
by a simple pallia! line. A deep cartilage pit exists in both valves. 
This shell occupies a premier position among local bivalves in 
point of size, excepting Pinna and O'strea. Though chiefly taken 
from waters in the vicinity 6i Port Lincoln, it has been dredged 
frOm several other places. Old, worn valves are occasionally 
found at the Outer Harbor, showing at no distant date, this speci- 
men was living at this place. \n excellent description of C 

kingxcola appears in Royal Soc. Trans, of S.A, 
J. C. Verco). 

29. (Sir 



These bivalves usually cement their lower valves firmly to- 
some loose stone or ledge of rock, and limy encrustations soon 
give them an irregular, shapless aopearance. 'Two solid teeth 
in the right convex valve are opposed by one in the left valve, 
which is comparatively small and flat. This method of attach- 
ment may be reversed, in which case the teeth are also inter- 
changeable. The elongated muscle scars, which show up prom- 
inently on the white interior, are joined by a simple, non-sinuated 
Chama fibula, Reeve, represents this family in our 
examples measuring two inches across have beer 
perfect state on the beaches. 

pallia] line. 

waters, ant 
collected in 


Horn Secretary, S.A. Shell Collectors' Club 

October. 1928 


: o 


The official opening by the Lord Mayor (Mr. Lavington 
Iv. mython) took place on the Friday, the Lord Mayor being intro- 
duced by Mr. IT. M. Hale, the Chairman of the Section. 

The display was a very varied and beautiful one, though less 
in point oi quantity than in some former shows. Members 
worked energetically to make the Show a success. Unfortunately 
space will not. allow the publication of the long list of helpers. 

One of the chief items was the pyramid exhibiting the massed 
flowers. The Schools display, the tables oi" named flowers, and 
the interstate displays (including as they did [lowers from Wes- 
tern Australia, New South Wales and Victoria, with a special 
display from the Grampians) were especially attractive. Mr.. 


9, A. NAT., VOL 
NOV.. 1928. 

\ ai tv Fl&i&er Show 

Burdett, of Basket Range, made a splendid display with flowers 
trom his garden of native plants. These included Leschenaultias, 
Kangaroo Paws, Boroaias and main other unique 'specimens of 
Australia's native flora. Mr, Edwin Ashby, of "Wittunga," 
Blackwood, showed a fine exhibit of cultivated native Mowers, 
Fine native peaches, grown in Rose Pari;, were shown bv Mr. 
W. Hill. 

c lowers were also received i rom Queensland ; each of the 
interstate exhibits wcvl- sent by the Meld Naturalists' Clubs in 
the respective States. 

.Many other branches of natural history wore well represent- 
ed, insects from the Museum, minerals from the Department of 
Mines, the University , and from Mr. Thomas, birds shown by 
Captain White. Coastal Plants and Common Weeds shown by 
Mr. Lewis were on exhibition. Microscopic exhibits shown and 
explained bv a band oi enthusiasts under the direction oi Mr. W. 
A. Harding, shells shown and described b\ Mr. Kimber 
mid his helpers, and woods from the S.A. Woods and Forests 
Dept. all added to the attractiveness of the Show, 

The South Australian Aquarium Society made a line exhibit 
of fishes and aquatic plants. 

The competition in paintings brought many fine examples 
oi (lower paiBting. 

The prizes for schools were awarded as follows: — Basket 
Range, Myponga, Monarto South, Craters, Hermitage, Mylor. 

During the evening sessions illustrated Iccturettes were given 
by Mr. Belkhambers. Mr. M. H. Hale, Dr. Basedow and Mr. 
J, F. Bailey and Mr. A. M. Lea. 

Messrs. j. M. Black and J. F. Bailey judged flower exhibits 
and Miss M. Grigg the paintings. Space will not permit of men- 
tion of the many members who worked with such splendid spirit 
on the various committees. 

: o : 


The forty-fifth annual meeting oi the Society was held at the 
society's rooms on August 21st, under the presidency of Mr. W. 
Champion Hackett. The annual report, read by the honorary 
secretary (Mr. E. H. Ising), showed 188 members, new members 
totalling 31, Three members had been removed by death — Mr. 
Edgar R. Waite, the highly esteemed and distinguished Director 
of the S.A. Museum; .Mr. W. J. Webb, an enthusiastic worker of 
the microscopical section, and an energetic worker at the annual' 

Annual Meeting, 

rov., 1928. 

\. Wat., vol. x. 

Wild .Flower Show; and Mrs. E. Drummond, who was popular 
among the members. During the year 27 excursion.-, by tram. 
train, launch and charabanc had been undertaken for the study 
of native flora, aquatic life, entomology, geology, bird life, mol- 
luscs and crustaceans, physiography, orchids, wattles, fruit cul- 
ture, cultivated native plants, and Australian trees. Lectures 
(some with Lantern slides) had been given by Mr, T. P. Bell- 
chambers ("The Life History of the Malice Fowl"), Dx. Fenner 
("Petrology" and "Chick Development" )* Mr. W. A. Harding 
("Floral Organs"),, Mr. II. M. Hale ("Crustaceans"), Rev. H. A. 
Gunter ("Foramiaifera"), Mr. F. B. Collins ("Histology"), Mr. 
J. W. Hosting ("Aquatic Plants"). Mr. Wilson ("The Water 
Flea">; Mr. C. T. JVhite, F.L.S., Government Botanist Brisbane 
(on "Rain Forests of Queensland and New Guinea"), Sir William 
Sowdcn ("Penology"), Professor J. B. Cleland and Mr. E. II. 
Ising ("Botany"), Mr. W. Ham ("Physiography of Tasmania"), 
Mr. W. I. Kimber ("Life on a Coral Island"), Mr. P. H. Williams 
("Peeps into Other Lands"), and Mr. A. G. Edquisjt ("Our 
Birds"). The S.A. Naturalist, the journal of the section, during 
the year had contained contributed articles by Professor Cleland. 
Messrs. H. M. Hale, P. S. Hossfeld, B.Sc, W. J. Kimber, N. B. 
Tindale, J. Sutton, and J. T. Cunningham, and Dr. C. Fenner, 
and reports of lectures and excursions . The editor is Mr. W. 
Ham, P.R.E.S., Adelaide University. The ninth annual wild 
flower show in the Adelaide Town Half, last September, had 
yielded a net profit of £45. The work in the herbarium, under 
Professor J. B. Cleland, had .nude substantial progress. A new 
species of Olearia, with other specimens. It ad been sent from 
Burrungul School. Many specimens from the flower show, sent 
by other schools, were name J and pressed. Two new species, 
Stipa nitida (a spear grass), and Stoainsona adenophylla, were 
received from Mr. F. D. Warren, of Finnis Springs. The herbar- 
ium had been used by Mr. J. M. Black in compiling his "Flora of 
South Australia."' Miss I, Roberts, librarian, had resigned, and 
Miss M. Roeger had been appointed to the position. The annual 
report of the fauna and. flora protection committee was presented 
by Mr. j. E. Lewis Machell. It referred, to measures taken b) 
the Government to preserve the native currant {Acrotriche 
Me press a) and to the question of saving the gre\ kangaroos at 
present found in certain part of the Adelaide hills. Mr. Harding 
read the report of the Microscopical Section, alluding to the revival 
of this section for the study of minute life. The subjects covered 
ranged from foraminifera to histology. Several members of 


S.A. NAT., 

Nov., 1928. 



technical ability promised lectures during the ensuing year. The 
meetings arc held in the Royal Society's rooms on the last Tues- 
day evening of every month. The third annual feport of the shell 
collectors' committee was read by Mr. F. Trigg. The committee 
had had i\ successful year, and numbered 25 members. A prelim- 
inary survey had been made oi the moiluscan class of Gasteropoda 
and Scaphoda (tooth shells), Polyplacophora, Cephalopoda (cut- 
tle fish), and Brachiopoda (lamp shells), and surveys were in pro- 
gress in the class Pelecypoda. The treasurer (Mr. F. Trigg) 
showed a credit balance of £23. The chairman (Mr. W. C. 
Hackett) read an instructive address covering most of the phases 
of the sections' activities. In the election of officers, Mr. fi. M. 
Hale was chosen as chairman, and with few exceptions, the old 
committee were re-elected. 

: <" ) 


AUGUST 18, 1928. 

Members of the Section met Sir William Sowden at the 
Wattle Grove. Sir William conducted the party through the 
plantation, and in an interesting chat explained the twofold pur- 
pose of the Wattle Da) League — the aims being to keep green 
the memory oi the heroic men who gave their lives in the war, 
the intention being that each of those who fell should be repres- 
ented by a ii ee planted by a near relative, and the .second aim 
to inculate in the rising generation a love of Nature, and particu- 
larly of our indigenous Bora — so unique and quaintly beautiful. 
It was the purpose to have an acacia in bloom during every 
month of the year, so that the cycle of seasons might always have 
a representative in the dainty and exquisite wattle blossom. The 
movement had had its origin in South Australia, but had spread 
Co every State of the Commonwealth and to New Zealand. It 
owed its inception to Mr. and Airs. Walter Torode. Starting from 
the granite monument erected in memory of the landing on Galli- 
poli, the plantation extends front South terrace to Park terrace, 
YVavville, and comprises a broad avenue of acacias and other 
Australian trees, with several irregular areas similarly planted. 
Among the wattles were noted A. pyenantha, A. cult.rifor?nis } 
A. longiformisy A. armala, A. decurrens, and several other var- 
ieties. Unfortunately, vandalism has not spared this valuable 
eserve. Fresh trees have been planted in place of these, and 
some have flourished and attained considerable dimensions. The 


S.A. NAT., VOL. X. 

*ov., 1928. 

soil is not altogether suitable, and in the lower parts needs drain- 
ing. Fv*n j visirine Governor, the Governor-General and their 
ladies have planted a tree in this historic grove. An interesting 
memorial is a tree that was dropped from his aeroplane by the 
late Capt. 11. Butler on Wattle Day, 1919, and was planted by 
[■lis Honor the Chief Justice (Sir George Murray). In this ex- 
ploit Capt. Butler uearh came to grief, as the tree got entangled. 
in the cordage of his machine. 

SEPTEMBER 8, 1928. 
A small party under the leadship of Mr. E. H. Ising, travelled 
by rail motor to Warpoo and spent a delightful day among the 
native flowers near the Warpoo siding. Several varieties of the 
carnivorous Drosera (Sundew) included D. gland-viigera which 
differed from the ordinary kind in bearing reel instead of the usual 
white flowers also D. WMttakeA and I). Menziesii, Dianella (little 
Diana), Bulbine bulbosa, GrevUlea lavandulacea (sometimes 
known as cat's claws) with its long red protruding styles, Heli- 
ckrysum (golden sun), a composite everlasting, Kennedya prosta- 
ta (red or scarlet runner), Dillzaynia and the golden-brown 
blossoms of Pultenaea laxiflora, also Stoainsona iesstrnjolia, 
Enchylaena (succulent cloak) tpmentosa ('covered with hairs), 
Cdlotis kispida, Schoenus, Leucopogon, (white beard), Myoporum 
viscosum, a species of speargrass (Stipa), Pimelea. known as rice 
grass, buttercups (Ranunculus lappaceaus) added interest and 
colour u> the pleasanl ramble.. Microseris (little lettuce) the 
native yam, Astroloma conostephioides and A. kumifiua (spread 
on the ground), Velleya paradoxa (known as i he native pansy), 
the' white flowering Stylidhnn despecta, Hydrocotyle (small water 
cup), Pofxbompholyx (many bubbles), Chthonocephaius (grand 
head with silvery leaves), Calolis (lovely ear). Helipterum (wing- 
ed sun), the "wild hop" (Dodonea viscosa), several species of 
Crassuta with thick succulent leaves only 1 inch high, some with 
stalks and little red scale at the base of the petals. The snake 
tongued fern (Qphioglossum) was widely distributed. The shrubs 
Davlcsla and Dillwynia were also in flower. Orchids were rep- 
resented by the dainty Dmrh (two tailed) maculala (spotted) 
v ith its brown and yellow spots, CaladcvJia reticulata (the spider 
orchid). The trees included acacias (wattles), native pines 
(Cailitris)i and eucalypts. Acacias included //. armata (prickly), 
,/, calculi folia (reed leaved), A. combine. A. spluescens. The 
Portiilocca (milk carrier), Caladrinia is distributed through the 
greater part of South Australia. The fleshy leaves contain abun- 
dant moisture. In the sandhill pastoral country large areas 



\-ov., 1928. 




covered with its beautitul purple flowers form a pleasing picture 
and moreover it has valuable [odder qualities. It is known as 
''parakyiia/ 1 and cattle remote from a in' water can live (or 
weeks on this succulent herbage. 

A small party journeyed to Port Willunga per charabanc but 

the exceptional!}' stormy weather drove them to take refuge in 
the vehicle and return to the city. 


On Wednesday, Oct. Joe. If), under the leadership of Dr. J. 
\>. Cieland, members of the Field Naturalists' Society visited 
Myponga on botanical investigation. The bush proved very rich 
in native flora, hut; the season was rather early lor blossoming. 
flibbertia { Guinea flower) decked i he hills with their golden 
bloom. The deep azure of Cheit 'anther 'a. with live yellow 
Stamens, was significant ol its scientific name meaning "hand- 
flower."'' The white left-handed Sc&evola owes its romantic name 
to an ancient, legend. Orchids included Caladcma canwa (flesh 
coloured), C. dilalata (spiders), CAossodia major (the tongue or- 
chid), Tkelyvtitra ixioides, T. rubra (lady's red headdress), T. 
anU dvifrra, and Diuris. The carnivorous Bros era (sundew 
were in great numbers, including D. glanduligera and J), auricu- 
lata. Other blooms collected were (lhamaescilla corymbosa, Caesia 
vittata (blue lily), Ilydrocoiylc (wild carrot), Viola Sieberiana, 
Isopogo* crratophyllus (horny leaf), Lcptospermum, Plat y lob- 
ium obtusanguluTn (wild ivy. one of the most beautiful of native 
flora), Helichrysum (golden sun, a gorgeous everlasting), DUl- 
■:vynla hispid a (hairy), Microscrls (little lettuce). 


Under the guidance of Dr. C. Eenner,a party of members 
oi the Field Naturalists' Section spent the afternoon of the 10th 
of November in the study of the physiography of the Adelaide 
Plains and of the Mount Lofty hills. A first stop was made at 
tlie Clen Osmond quarries. In the steep scarp the bedding of 
the blue slates and the quartzites was clearly observed. These 
rocks had been deposited in successive horizontal strata in shal- 
low water millions of years ago, and the layers had been slowly 
uplifted during the ancient mountain building period to an angle 
ot r 45 dee. A broad vein of quartz, brown and weathered, could be 
clearly traced about midway in the cliff. This well-defined mass 
had found its way through cracks in the sedimentary rocks while 
the quartz was in solution. The joint planes, at right angles to 

S.A. NAT., VO! - X. 

14 Excursions: xov., 1928. ' 

one another wore of great service to the quarrymen, enabling 
them, with comparative ease, to dislodge large blocks of stone. 
At the Eagle-on-the-Hill the party left, the charabanc and from a 
favorable vantage point obtained an extensive and magnificent 
view of the city and its environs from the gulf to the foothills, 
and north in the direction of Gawler. From this spot it Was 
easy to follow Dr. Fenners account of the many gradual but 
Stupendous geological changes that, had prepared this great fertile 
tract For the abode of man, and to conjure up pictures of the 
landscape in those remote ages. First, a vast ocean rolled over 
the plains from the Great Australian Bight eastwards 
to the Victorian Grampians-, and north almost to Broken Hill. 
During that submergence millions ol marine creatures lived and 
died in the waters, and their skeletons, sinking in the ooze, had 
in the course of countless milleniums, formed vast beds of lime- 
stone. Then billowed a period of very slow but continuous uplift, 
and the limestone layers rose above the retreating waves. The 
Mount Lofty Ranges were uplifed and the two gulfs were lowered. 
Torrential rains scored channels to the soft rock, rivers and 
creeks began to How. carrying in their streams fragments of rock, 
gravel, sand, and mud. and spreading them down to the shallow 
waters near the present coastline. The same irresistible process 
was going on to-day before our eyes, and the Torrens was laying 
down its load of silt and detritus behind the sandhills of Henley 
and Grange: and nothing that they could do would arrest this 
upbuilding of the great delta plain. 

Dr. Fenner pointed out the succession of shelves or platforms 
that form a step-like front to the Mount Lofty Ranges. At the 
Croydon bote is an ancient block 1,000 feet below the surface 
covered with marine and river deposits. At Kent Town there 
had been found another block 400 feet down, similarly capped 
with limestones and muds. The Burnside block was 500 feet 
above sea level. The Belair block stood at 1,000 feet; the Stun 
block at 1,600 feet, and above that rose the dominant Mount 
Lofty block. A short pause was made at a quarry between 
Glen Osmond and Eagle-on-t he-Hill, where Professor Sir Edge- 
worth David claimed to have found the most, ancient fossils yet 

Farther on the road to Mount Lofty Mr. E. H. Ising called 
attention to the marked distinction in the vegetation of the round- 
ed grassy hills formed by layers of slate and claw and sombre 
forests of the Stringy-bark growing on beds of hard qunrtzites. 


.A, NAT,, VOL 

c*ov., 1928, 



w > 

OCTOBER, 27, 1928. 

Or. October 27, the Camera Club joined with the Field 
ituralistV section of the Royal Society in an excursion to 
the National Park. Many wild flowers were in bloom, and 
the party followed the path that led through the tunnel 
under the railway and up the rocky gorge to beetling 
rocks, which might" have provided a stupendous water- 
tall ii the water had not been practically non-existant. From a 
rock\ r ledge Mr. VV. Ham discoursed on the way in which those 
mighty cascades had been formed, and stretched the imagination 
to breaking point by comparisons with Niagara and with the 
Victoria Fails on the Zambesi. He pointed out that the tower- 
ing rock faces consisted of materials differing greatly in hardness 
and in resistance to the action of the acids found in falling and 
running water. The softer rocks in the course of the stream, 
such as hme, sandstone, and Iron, were decomposed by carbonic 
acid or rusted by oxygen, and the refuse had been carried away 
by running water. Even in dry countries like our own there 
was a "skia" of moisture deposited on the rocks, which acted as a 
snlve.m ■; and wind, grit, and water removed this, exposing fresh 
surfaces to repeated attacks. The harder quartzites. of which 
the bulk of the strata consisted, resisted these agents of disintegra- 
tion and formed a barrier over which the angry water had tumb- 
led in surging foam, thus forming one of the most beautiful sights 
in Mature. As the softer material was swept away, great gorges 
shut in with sheer precipitous rock faces were gradually scooped 
out. By that unintermittent but almost imperceptible action, 
hese cocky sides had been prradually rounded off and valleys shap- 
ed like the letter U were formed in the lower reaches, known as 
"Old Valleys;" while in the upper course of the stream the steep 
V-shaped channel betokened a "Young Valley," The rate at 
which the waterfall had retreated up the valley had depended 
on the character of the rock, the quantity of the rainfall and 
the steepness of the descent. 

:o : 


The past year as seen an effort to re-establish the Micros- 
copic Committee of the Field Naturalists' Section of the Royal 


The Microscopic Committee 

\. n vr. f vol. x. 
nov., 1928. 

The which functioned so successfully for many 
years under the inspiration of the late Mr. Bradley had unfor- 
tunately been allowed to lapse, and it was felt by several mem- 
bers of the Section that members should have the opportunity 
to demonstrate the microscopic sections of their various subjects, 
and incidentally gain an insight into the field of other workers. 

Energetic efforts have therefore been made to encourage 
the work of the Committee, and the membership in active at- 
tendance is steadily growing. Subjects considered have ranged 
from Histology to Foraminifera and studies in Pond Life. All 
subjects have been amply ilustrated with suitable slides, speci- 
mens, etc., and have proved extremely interesting to all present. 

For members who have not the advantage of advanced tech- 
nique with the Microscope here is an opportunity to gain ex- 
perience from others and use instruments that may be beyond 
their individual possession. In addition to the use of the excel- 
lent microscopes kindly lent by the Royal Socitey, a number 
of useful and unusual instruments have been demonstrated by 
some of the members. 

In addition to the instruments mentioned, the Committee 
is indebted to the Roval Society Jor the use of the Room of meet- 
ing, and. ako. it is hoped that in the near future the excellent 
library (on matters microscopic) will be placed %t the Committee's 

An appeal is made to all interested to link up with the pres- 
ent members of the Committee, as it is felt that much mutual 
benefit can be 80 gained. Further information can be obtained 
from the President (Mr. A. W . Harding) or the Secretary (Mr. 
Collins, c/o Customs House. Port Adelaide). 



NOTES ON 1 THE ECOLOGY (Concluded). 

By J. B. Cleland, M.D. 
Continued from Vol. TX., No. 4. \ugust. 1928, 



VIII. Hill-slopes and Gravelly Sandy Loam and Clay Subso:' 
with widely dispersed Eucalyptus (asciaiiosa, etc. 

The type of vegetation presented by this area is an oper. 
forest, usually of Eucalyptus fasciculosa (Pink Gum) with some 
£. leucoxylov (Yellow Gum), the trees being widen separated 

NOV., 1928. 


The Plants oi Rticounttt Buy District 


so as to leave plenty of exposure to sunlight. Between and under 
the trees are various shrubs and undcr-shrubs. The soil varies 
somewhat with corresponding slight variations in the plants. 
either as regards species or as regards relative prevalence. A 
good example, now however being cleared for sowing subterran- 
ean clover, may be seen on the south side of the Inman Valley 
xoad, opposite the turn-off to the Hindmarsh Tiers and the 
residence formerly of Mr. and Mrs. Moulden, This hill is a 
sandy loam with small glacial erratics and some gravel with a 
more clayey soil below. In addition to the two Eucalypts men- 
tioned, E. viminalis (Manna Gum) grows near small creeks des- 
cending from the area, nnd there are a few She-oaks (Casuarina 
jtricta) and occasional Native Cherries {Exocarpus cufiressi- 

\ or mis ) . As regards 
Casuarina striata, the 

the taller shrubs, there are thickets of 
plants as usual being upright and twiggy. 
These were in flower in September. 1928 — female plants with 
cones were most abundant, the "male" plants with their yellow- 
ish stamens showing usually also a few tones. A few plants of 
C. Muelleriana i forming more rounded bushes, were present, the 
males in flower with stamens redder than those oi the previous 
species. One plant of C. pusilla, in this case growing to a height 
of three and a half feet, was noted. Oilier tall shrubs irregularly 
scattered comprise Golden Wattle (Acacia pyenantka), Kangaroo 
Bush (../. armata) i Pultenaea daphnoides in moister pans, Xanth- 
■drrhoea semiplana-Tateanaj ami in wetter parts Leptosperrnum 
scopariurh. Of lower shrubs passing into under-shrubs, Hibbertia 
stricta was dominant in places as small separate bushes and 
there were scattered examples of Leptos peftntim myrsinoides, 
Acacia civr'Holia, .1. verticillata, ffakea rugosa and less frequent 
//. rosttata, If. idicina, Tsopogon crrafuphyllus, Pultenaea largi- 
ftorens var. lattfolia, Platylobium obtusangulum and Olgtffiat 
ravruiosa var. microphyila. A small colony of Melaleuca decus- 
s'ata was composed of low plants. A still more lowly level in 
plan; height, somewhere about a foot, was represented by the 
sedge Lepidosperma concavum which in places had nearly taken 
complete possession. Tufts oi £. c<&phoides were numerous. 
Kangaroo Grass ( Thetneda triandra) was common. Othei 
grasses were occasional only and comprised Neurachne alopecur- 
oides, $tipa> Danthonia, Briza maxima and Agropyrwrn scabtum. 
The Wood-rush Luzula catnpestnis comes up in the spring but 
is not common, f uncus ha!! id in was in water-courses. The 
Carrot Fern {Ckeilantkes tenuifolia) was frequent. There were 

a few J ah; 

;eous plants such as DtG&ie 



wbopon ( ir 

'tin tffvoluta, Lomandra dura, 
pring). 1 here were also a few 


The Plants of Encounter Bay District. 

nov., 1928. 
s.a. nat., vol. x. 

p lants oi Cladiu m junceu m , liypolacna fa'stig iota, R umex 
Brozvnii, Ranunculus lappaccus, Dilkvynia hispida. Pelargonium 
australe var. erodwides, St-ackhousia monogyna, Leucopogon con- 
curvuSj Hdlorrhagis tetragyha, Ildichrysum apindatum, Erech- 
tites and Craspsdia Richea. The spring orchids may be men- 
tioned here, ol which a T/ic'Iymilra, Ly per an lints nigricans in 
leaf, a Diuris, Caladenia dejorvxis and Glossodia major were not- 
ed. Prostrate spreading plants consisted of Kennedy a prostrata 
(Scar 1 ci Runner) 3 Bos'siaea prostrata } Aslrolorna humijusum 
(Native Cranberry) and Dlchovdra repens. Of about the same 
height Were -small tufted plants such as Schoenus apogem and 
■S*. Tepperi, small grasses as for example Aira caryophyllea^ Bnza 
mtnoTj Poa o.nnua and Vesiura myosuros, and small dicotyledons 
as Rur.iex acetosella (Sorrel), Cerasthim glomeratuvi (Mouse-ear 
Chickweed), Drosera aurxculata and probably D. peltata, Oxalis 
comic id at a, Hypericum grarrmvewm and Micros ens scapigera? 
most ol which were in few numbers. 

The minute 
lie lowest leve 

spring ephemera] plants are an interesting feature 
vascular plants. They flourish for a few 
andy soil of this and many other areas 

1 of 

n'ceks in the moist- 
in tiie district. Amongst these were noted Triglockin centro- 
carpa, the small neat tufts of Scirpus antarcticus, Centrolepis aris- 
iata and C. strigasa> Anguillaria dioica, Hypoxis glabella, Calan- 
drinia? , Drosera, D. pygmaea, Crassula Sicbcriana, C 
macrantha y Hydrocotyle callicarpa, Millotia tenuifolia and Ruti- 
dosis puviilo. 

Of parasitic platus. Loranthus Miquelii occurred cm Eucalyp- 
tus jasciculosa and the two False Dodders, Cassytha melantha 
and C, glabella, climbed round various plants. 

Occasional examples of the following plants were also noted: 
GkamaesciUa corymbosa, Bartlingia scssiliflora, Gremllea lavan- 
dulacea, Rosa rubiginosa (Sweetbriar), Acaena, Acacia spines- 
cens, Trijoliuvi procumbens, Viola Sicbcriana and Hypockaens 

— Miscellanea ■ — 
Bay of Biscay Semi-swamp. Lepidosperma concavum-C horizan- 

dra enodis-Callistemon rugulosus Association. 

Tn places on the landward side of the scrub stretching towards 
Newland's Head are areas of Bay of Biscay ground, consisting 
of circular depressions a foot or so deep and several yards across, 
separated from each other by round ridges. This country is 
dry in summer but the depressions, Having clay bottoms, hold 
water or are moist in winter. One such area, about a mile and a 


NOV 192£ 

A'v /. 




half from the Bluff, occupies several acres and as the vegetation 
presents some peculiarities; it seems worth describing. 'Vhe pre- 
dominant plants are /.. concavum } occupying the ridges and com- 
peting with the Ie?s abundant C. enoais for the drier follows. 
. enodis i? abundant and often alone in the deeper depressions, 
ft type of situation — partly submerged or damp in winter — ap- 
parently always taken by this sedge. 'The plants give a distinct 
Colour-tone to the areas on which they occur. Next to these two, 
i^.aUhtemop, rugulosus is abundant on many ridges and is very 
beautiful, with its crimson stamens, when in flower, tiiough the 
shrubs are low and rather spread out. Hardly noticeable but 
often producing a considerable liars h sward on the ridges is 
Schoeiius Tepperi. Low shrubs of Eucalyptus eosmophyua and 
Mftall plants of Melaleuca decussata are not uncommon, ilakea 
tugosa also favours this yellow clayey soil, the shrubs being num- 
erous in parts. Acacia farinosa is met with here hut not else- 
where m this district. Not uncommon and found as yet 
jtowhere else in the district is the pretty, low Rhamnaeeous plant 
Pomaderri: obcordata with bifid ends to the leaves. Eutaxw 
micropkylla is scattered throughout and a col on \ of Slyphclia 
»\arrht'!ui was lound. Near this were two plants pf the rare 
Leucopogon Clelandn i flowering in May, in which month at Coon- 
alpvn it was first found about 16 years ago and has only been 
found once since at Kangaroo Island. There u ere a consid- 
erable number of plants of Actotficks aipnis with their prickly 
leaves. The following additional plants were few in number and 
did not participate appreciably in making up the fades: — A few 
scattered grasses, Juncus paucifjorus, Diaucfla rcvohita, Lnman- 
dra dura, the orchid Orthoceras slriclum, Grevv&ea Uicifolia (near 
the edge). Cassytha glabella, Drossra Whitiakcri, D. sp. (upright 
ftt$m ). J2& viesta ulicina, Ottulh conricidata, Phyllantlvus mistralis, 
Hibbt rtia (fairly common), Phnrlea, Eucalyptus leucoxylon 
( low ) . Halorrhayis / eucrioides } If. sp., . Istrolo ma humifusuTn, 
Dampicra, Goodcma ovata, Cassivia aculeala and C otocephalus 

\ew Vegetation on Shifting Strand. — Sand blocks more or 
less the exits of the Hindmarsh and fnman Rivers. Floodwaters 
on the .one hand and exceptionally high tides on the other tend 
to bre-ik down and shift the accumulation of sand. In summer, 
rjften neither stream lias any escape for its water. During 1927 
BOfrte alterations occurred at the mouth of the Inman anu a por- 
tion of the exit, previously bare sand, had more sand, probably 
with some silt as well, superadded so as to irivc harbourage to 
plants. Of this, advantage was soon taken so that a number of 

S,A. NAT., vol, 

20 7'//,' Wflnfi o; Encounter Bav District. v,v., 1928. 

youag plants "were noted in January, 1928, and these had con- 
siderably increased in size by May. The plants were scattered 
oyer the area and the following tvere noted as having been able 
to establish themselves in this newly-made bed:— -The grasses 
Spinijex hirsutus, Sporobolus mrginicus, Polypogon monspietiensis, 
L&gurus ovatus, Phragimtes communis (died out by May), Fes- rigida } Btotkals probably B. madritensis , Leptutus vncutvatui 
and Etordeum, the sedge Scirpus nvdosus, Ru-mex sp.. Emex 
a-ustralis. Polygonum avieulare, Rkagodia baccata, Chenopodium 
murale, Ch. glaucum, A triplex river e-wm, Salsola kali, Su&ed<2 
auslralis, Enchyla-ena tomcnlosa, Ly thrum kyssopifolia? (oae 
plant), Oenothera odor en a (one). Lyc'ium ferocisshnum. (Box- 
thorn, one). Datura stramonium, Plmttago lanceolatus (few). P. 
corona pus (abundant), Olearia axillaris (one). Cry pt ostein me. 
calenduiaceiun, Cirsmm lanceolatum, Soechus diet actus and 
Hypochaeris radlcata. 

:o : 

( iwing to pressure on our space an interesting 

article on aboriginal carvings has been held 

oyer to the next issue. 

: o : 


1. Tht Australian Museum Vfaga&xie, Vol. [II., No. S. Articles on the 

Bicentenary of the birqh of Captain James Cook and on C£ Nerc Guinea: 
Land of the Devi! Devil" are particularly interesting. 

2. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum, July. 1928. 

3. The Queensland Natura&st, July, 1928. 

4! The Victorian Naturalist. August, September raid October Numbers. 

5. Journal of tin Royal Society of Western Australia, Vol. XHT.. 1926-1977. 
The first paper contains the names o; fifty New Species and Six New 
Varieties of Western and Northern Australian Acacias, The Volcanic 
History of Western Australia hi A. Gibb Maitland is another notable 

1. On the Barrier Keel'. 

2 Report of the Victorian Naturalists' Expedition through the Western Dis- 

trict m Victoria in October, 1927. The tour was organised by Mr. E. 
E. Pescott, F.L.S., to visit part of the Grampians in Western Victoria. 
The report, which is well illustrated, gives » full account pi the botany 
and physiography of this region with notes on the insect life etc. 

3 The Peopling of Australia-. Issued For the Institute of Pacific Relations 

Edited by P. P. Phillip? and G. T,. Wood. The Essays deal with gre; • 
Australian Problems of Population, Immigration, Eugenics, Industries. 
Climates. White Settleraeni of Australia, etc 

The South Australian Naturalist 

w The Journal of the Field Naturalists* Station of th* RovaJ 
Society of South Australia and of the South Australian 
Aquarium Society. 

VOL X., 

No. 2 


Habits of Some Australian Freshwater Fishes, By Clarence Blewett 

Further Notes on Aboriginal Rock Carving in South Australia, 
By Herbert M Hale 



fid Excursions 34-36 

The "Sandalwood" of SA and W.A 36 

The authors of papers are responsible for the fact* 
recorded and opinions expressed. 

Address of the Section: C/o Royal Society 's Booms, Institute 
Building, North Terrace, Adelaide. 

Published Quarterly 

Single Copy -NINEPENCE 

Obtainable from Cole's Book Arcade, No. 14 Bundle Street, 


Fclateed & Omeby, Print, Gilbert Piece, Adelaide, 'Phone C. 1081 


Chairman — Mr. Herbert M. Hale. 

Vice-Chairmen— Messrs. A. J. Morison and Rev. H. A. Gunter. 

Hon. Secretary — Mr. E. H. Ising, 

Hon. Assistant Secretary—Miss J. M. Murray. 

Hon. Treasurer — Mr. F. Trigg. 

Hon. Magazine Secretary — Miss Roeser. 

Hon. Librarian — Miss M. Roeger. 

Hon. Press Correspondent— Mr. D. J. McNamar*. 


Profeuor J. B. Clcland. Messrs. J. F. Bailey. W, H. Selway, J. A. Hogan, 

T. W. Nettelbcck, Dr. C. I Mr. W. Champion Hackett and 

Miss E. Ireland. 

Fauna and Flora Protection Committer — 

Professor J. B. Cleland, Dr. C. Fenncr, Messrs. E. A-hby, W. H. 
Sclway J M. Black, J. F. Bailey, A. M. Tea, F. Angel. W. Champion Hackett, 

B B Beck, L Neil McGiip, J. Sutton, VV. J. Kimber, Captain S. A. White, 
and Mr. J. F. L. Machell. 

Hon. Auditors— Messrs WD. Reed, F.C.P.A., and A. J. Morison. 

"The South Australian Naturalist"— Hon. Editor, Mr. Wm. Ham, F.R.ES. 
Address: University, Adelj ; 


March 9— Aldeate Show. Train, 2.3. Leader, Mr. Morrison. 

March 16— JSna'kf Park (North Adelaide) With the Aquarium Society. Leader, 

Mr. Hale. 
April 6— Hallett's Cove. Train, 1.38 p.m. Geology, etc. Leader, Dr. Fenner. 
April 25— Thursday (Anzac Day). Montacute. 
May A — Outer Harbour. Shore Life. Leaders, Shell Club. 
May 18— Burnside Waterfall. 


March 19 — Exhibit Evening: — 

1. Mr. J. F. Bailey, "Some Australian Flowers." 

2. Mr. W. J. Kimber, "Shell*." 

3. Mr, W. A. Harding, "Microscope subject." 


1. The Australian Naturalist (N.S.W.), September and December Number*. 

2. The Victorian Naturalist. December and January Number*. 

Messrs. Pcscott and Nicholls report the finding of a new *pecie* of 
Orchid named Ccladenia Httdae. 

3. Queensland Naturalist. November Number. 

4. The South Au*tralian Ornithologist. October and January Number*. 


South Australian Naturalist. 

Vol. X. 

FEBRUARY, 1929. 

No. 2. 


By Clarence V. Blewett, Swath Australian Aquarium Society. 


'1 he following notes are the result oi observations o) some 
vi our small freshwater fishes, carried out during the last two 
years. Breeding behaviour was observed in large reel angular 
aquaria, 24 inches in length, 3 1 inches in width and 12 inches in 
depth. These contained about 12 gallons of water each 3 and 
were well aerated with growing aquatic plants. 

1 consider that care of the fish prior to the breeding season 
lias a marked effect on the results obtained- Fishes which 1 
hope to induce to spawn in my tanks are installed in 12. gallon 
•aquaria throughout the winter and the temperature is maintained 
in the vicinity of 70 F. so that with the advent oi spring the 
fish are in excellent condition. This is particularly necessary in 
the case oi those which exercise parental care of the euu's. 


This fish, popularly known in South Australia as the Chequ- 
ered Gudgeon or c< Krefftius f} } is moderately common in the River 
Murray system, and according to Hale (1) was v at one time plen- 
tiful in the River Torrens, where it was used by anglers as live 
bait for the introduced European Perch. 

Tt is well known, to those who search for Mogurnda, that 
repeated visits to pools and lagoons which the fish it known 
to inhabit max be without result in the winter, but thai in the 
spring and summer numerous examples are found in these situa- 
tions. Tt therefore seems probable that the fishes migrate from 
deeper water or the main body of the streams in the summer 
time and spend the winter in sheltered situations in the last- 
named. Gently running or almost stagnant, clear waters are pre- 
ferred to any other: secluded situations on weedy ground are 
selected as a rule, but the fish spends part of its time poised in 

(1) Hale, Aquatic Life, iv, 1919, p. 148. 

Freshwater Fishes 

S.A, X AT. 
VOL. K, 

open spaces between vegetation, resting motionless on weeds near 
the warmer surface water, or resting on the bottom. The species 
rarely swims continuously for long distances, but progression is 
accomplished in a series of jerky darts. The caudal fin is often 
used to propel the fish, but the pectorals are used to a much 
greater extent when it is moving about quietly. Although num- 
bers oi the species may be present m one pool 3 they do not con- 
gregate in schools-. 

\ good method oi capturing the fish is by using a handnet, 
preferably rectangular in shape, with a bag of about 18 inches in 
length attached at right angles to a stick some S to 10 feet in 
length. The net is thrust out amongst the water-weeds and 
quickly drawn, in towards the bank with a downward swoop. 
The net need not be entirely immersed For, as previously men- 
tioned, the Mogumda likes to bask in the sun, resting on the 
weeds near the surface. 

The natural food consists of young yabbies, shrimps and 
insects. In aquaria the fish readily accepts living earthworms, 
while -craped beef is taken by examples accustomed to life in 
tanks. Food is taken voraciously, the fish making a determined 
drive to secure it, turning almost on one side. Feeding takes 
place at any time during the day and in summer iood is accepted 
every da) . ah hough in winter comparative!} little is eaten. 

The rale oi respiration varies very greatly with temperature, 
excitement, etc.. but the gill movements of a quiet fish, at 80° F 
are about: 108 per minute. 

Like most of our native fishes. Mogumda adspersa is very 
subject to attacks of Saprolegnia in. aquaria il the temperature of 
the water drops below 6Q°F. 

The sexual differences are not very pronounced., the malt 
usually having a slight!} blunter head than the female. The sur- 
est way to distinguish the sexes is of course in the breeding season, 
when 'lie ripe female has a swollen abdomen, and the milt in the 
male shows much more inner white than formerly. Some aquarists 
maintain that the males have the posterior ends of the dorsal 
and anal fins more produced than those of the females, but as 
I haw a ripe female whose fins are more pointed at the tips than 
are those of her mate, this difference can hardly be considered 
ol much value. 

Although no special seasonal characters are developed both 
sexes become deeper in colour during the breeding season, which 
commences in the spring and, under good conditions, continues 

3,A. N VI. 
90L, v 

By C. F. Blewett 


during the whole of the summer when the temperature of the 
water rises to between 65* and 80°F. My breeding fish are about 
3 inches in length, but a few larger examples have been taken. 

rhe [ate Albert Gale successfully bred the species in aquaria 
sixteen years ago and briefly described its breeding habits (2). 
Ymerican aquarists ' became interested in Gale's account and in 
1918 one enthusiast Erwin 0. Freund, with the assistance of the 
hii : 1 1. G. Finck of Svdne\ . transported a number of living 
Australian freshwater fishes to America, including 1 1 specimens 
o1 our Gudgeon, These spawned in \ugust, three months after" 
their arrival (3) . 

\Iy fust effort to breed this fish was made in 1927. \bout 
August I was practically certain ol the sexes I had, three pairs, 
as three fish were obviousl) heavy in spawn. On November 17th 
1 selected a well-matched pair and provided them with two stones 
placed together to form a small cave. The male soon found his 
way into, and inspected the retreat, which was* so arranged that 
the spawn might be easily viewed. 

The (ove-making was very pretty. The color of the male 
deepened to a rich sk\ -blue and as he swam around his male 
he creeled every fin to the fullest extent, and also expanded the 
gill covers, reminding me <>! a peacock showing on his plumage, 
Fh's courting went on for some days : until at last" he coaxed 
his consort into the little cave. The following morning (Nov, 
22nd) the female spawned on the stone and all the ova were in 
plain view. There were about one to tv> hundred elongate 
eggs, arranged very closely together. The male continuously fan- 
ned the eggs with the pectoral -unci anal fins, with his body in 
various positions; at times he was head-downwards, and oc- 
casionally has fanning- was so vigorous that T was afraid he might 
cause the eggs to become detached from the stone, lie was very 
jealous oi his charge; on several occasions the female approached 
the eggs but each time tins resulted in a vicious attack by the 
male, and the loss of some part of a fin of the female; at times 
the male left the eggs ami drove Ins mate about, so that she soon 
became a very dejected looking fish and was removed. No ova 
were infertile: they developed fairly quickly, then owing to a cold 
snap the temperature dropped, the young took 14 days to hatch, 
and were weaklv and died. 

(2) (-ale. Aust. Zooh, i, 1924, p. 25, and Aquarian Nature 
Studies, 1^15. p. IB and Aquatic Life, iii, 1918, p. 146. 

(3) Aquatic Life iii. 1918, p. 164 and iv, 1919, p. 33. 


FrtshwatCT Fishes 

s . a . n \T. 

VOL. v. 

Subsequent spawnings turned out quite satisfactory ; one 
which I witnessed, occurred at 6.30 a.m.. the water temperature 
jeing about 82°F. and the same stone as before being used. I 
arranged the aquarium so that ii the temperature dropped it 
could be heated. The female deposited about 30 eggs then waited 
for the male to do his part. That having been done she deposited 
a further batch. Tins went on until eventually the male seemed 
not so anxious to fertilize the eggs as before and remained on 
the bottom ol the aquarium. The female then pushed him with 
her snout and he again attended to his duties until the spawning 
was completed. Alter the deposition and fertilization, the female 
showed no interest in the welfare ot the spawn, excepting when, 
as previously noted, she approached the nest after the male had 
taken charge, and then possibly the ova would have been eaten 
by her but for the intervention ol the male. A lew infertile eggs 
were present but these were brushed off by the male while aerat- 
ing the batch. The remaining eggs hatched in three days, when 
the male was removed. The young fry, as m other broods 
observed by mc, seemed quite incapable oi swimming properly; 
tficy la}- about the bottom seemingly dead, then, with great effort, 
attempted to got to the surface. This went on for about 36 hours 
and only about one-half of the fry succeeded in becoming balan- 
t ed. i lie rest: dying at t he end of this period when I he egg-sac 
was absorbed. 

In the ease of the first batch ol spawn I attributed this. 
■preliminary helplessness and high mortality ol the yourfg to the 
too-prolonged period ol incubation, and in the case oi the sec- 
ond, to the fact that the temperature was too high during incuba- 
tion, but later the same thing happened to fry that were hatched 
in a 1 ub in the open, Irom different parents; these experiences 
may be merely coincidences, for Gale's description ol the breed- 
ing habits oi these fish does not mention an) difficulty with the 
fry getting their equilibrium, and 1 am at a loss to sav what 
the cause might be. 

During the incubation period the male ate very little; he 
would eat two or three worms at infrequent intervals but would 
touch no small live lood. Ft is significam and. to me at least. 
of great interest as exhibiting a natural tendency to protect the 
fry, that during the breeding season both Mogumia aclspersa 
and Melanotaenia nigrans refused to eat mosquito larvae, which 
to some extent superficially resemble the young fishes. 

F..A. NAT. 
VOL. X. 

By C. F. BUtecl 




This species ranges from New ( hiinea to the eastern and 
southern rivers oi Australia, and is common in the Murray 
River and its tributaries. The spot which lias led to the popular 
appellation "Pink-ear" is not apparent in South Australia ex- 
amples, in fact southern specimens differ- consider abl} in color 
from tiiose occurring in tropical Australia. Although perhaps less 
pigmented, these southern examples lose nothing in beauty, [or 
the iridescent reflections oi the fish render it one oi the most 
beautiful ol t he inmates oi aquaria. The species apparent I y 
prefers clear, still pools with muddy bottoms and weed, but also 
occurs in the cloudy water oi the main stream oi the Murray 

In aquaria at night the fish can be seen apparently sleep- 
ing (u i he light be switched on), resting on the bottom (on the 
abdomen), or on the weeds 3 m most quaint positions, sometime; 
head do\* nv. ards. In the day it is rarely on the bottom bu! 
remains poised in rnidwater. In swimming it makes swift darts 
forward for a few inches then remains poised, but it is capable oi 
darting about very quickly if alarmed. The pectoral fins are 
used for poising and are vibrated about 70 times per minute; 
between each vibration the fins are brought back close to the 1 
body and there is a distinct pause. The caudal is used for all 
forward movements, except lor travelling very short distancea 
when onh ' the pectorals are utilised. The dorsal m the female 
is always erect; in the male (that fin being longer) ft is erected 
at the fullest only at times ol excitement, such as during feed- 
ing or when frightened. At 80" F. the gill movements are about 
220 per minute. 

When in clear water, especially on a sunny day, the species 
nearly a!wa\ s congregates, in schools ol 20 or more, swimming 
close to the warmer surface layer of water. 

Almost any small living aquatic animals are eaten; food such, 
as mosquito lavae, Daphnia, or small chopped worms (if seen 
while sinking to the bottom) is taken with a swift dash. Anyone* 
who has fished in the Murray knows how one gets moderate 
lues at the line which result in the loss of the wriggling ends of 
the worms. This is in many cases due to these fish clashing past 
and biting at the struggling bait. Food is taken at. an\ time in 
the day if the temperature is 6S°F. or over; in the winter the- 
fishes eat little. 

Six oi these fish were kept heated throughout the winter in 
a 12 gallon aquarium and fed on chopped worms and live food 
such as mosquito larvae and Dafthvia, the swimming live food 


Fvskivattr Fiske 

being taken more readily, as when the worms sank to the bottom 
it was only the exceptionally lively examples which attracted 
their attention. The fish is not a "bottom feeder' normally, 
but in an aquarium it soon learns to feed off the bottom after 
a few days of hunger, and looks rather quaint swimming head 
downwards after the fashion oi our carp when ground feeding, 
nly in an even more \ ertical position. 

For aquarium purposes the fish may be captured \v Ith a 
net similar to that described under the account of Mogu?nda f 
but without the long handle, a shorl stick. 8 inches to a foot in 
.length being sufficient. The end o\ the net is folded and placed 
on top oi the frame furthest aw ay from the handle. A bait 
consisting of a lively earthworm is then tied to a piece of string 
about, a foot long, which is attached to the top end oi the net. 
I he bait is then immersed in the water (which must not be too 
clear), in a shad}- spot, just deep enough to see it, and presently 
a flash of a fish will be seen and a slight tug will be felt. Then coax 
the Pink-ear nearer to the surface and when it gets a little more 
confident it will remain by the bail for a secoui, when a quick 
downward sweep will in nearly evetv case secure the fish, the 
bag ol the net unfolding 1 whilst entering the water. 

'The transportation ol the Pink-ear is iairb difficult owing to 
us habit of dashing wildly about when caught, and also oi jump- 
ing up out of the water and injuring itself on the top of the 
cAf\ or ot her receptacle; this usuall} results in S&prolegnia, t< > 
attacks of which the species is apparently very susceptible. This 
c^in be overcome to a great extent by placing the freshly caught 
example in a screw-top mineral-water bottle, quickly laying the 
latter on its side so that the fish cannot jump, and also cover- 
ing the bottle so that the fish is in the dark. Care musi be 
taken that the bottle is not filled with water ; (about 3 square 
inches air space being left for aeration ). and t hat the stopper 
is tight. This applies generaih to the transportation oi an) 
fish. Tw o fish winch w ill just pass through the neck o! our 
screw top bottle will safely survive a 3 hour journev providing 
they are kept cool mid get a. good deal oi shaking to keep the 
water aerated. No more should be pu; in the bottle, which can 
be kept cool by wrapping in a wet bag or cloth, evaporation 
keeping the temperature down. Never force the fish in the 
bottle neck, as this is sure to result in swim-bladder trouble. 
If, however, the fish become damaged or bruised in transit, a 
white spot of the fungus Saprolegnia will appear in a few days, 
usuallv on the snout. This can be easily cured, it. attended to 

■ .A, NAT. 
VOL. X. 

Bv C. F. Blewett 


immediately, by placing the fish in an aquarium and adding two 
heaped teaspoonsful of common : alt per gallon of water; if 
the weather is cold keep the temperature at about 70°F. A 
daily change oi the saline solution is helpful but not essential; 
a tew days o\ this treatment will uaually effect a cure. 

.There are no special seasonal characters, but the sexes are 
easil) determined at an) time. The male is half as deep again 
is the female, with long 3 speckled, orange-tinted dorsal and anal 
fins, extending to and touching the tail, and with a shot-silk 
color effeel «>! blue, green and bronze on the body. The female 
has comparative!} short, colorless fins and the body not nearly 
as brilliant, although her silvery blue coloration is quite striking. 

A pair was selected From a number in an aquarium and 
placed in an outside pond, which contained about 400 gallons, in 
September. Aboul the beginning of November it was found 
necessary to empt) this and the female Pink-ear was caught. As 

ler abdomen u as su ollen and the former dark inner color had 
been replaced b} white, 1 concluded that her ovaries were ripen- 
ing. She was placed again with the others in the tank and another 
female put in the pond in her place. \\ ith the advent of warm 
weather the ripe female was placed in another freshly planted 

iquarium in company w ith a male, nev* v, ater was ' added and 
a quantit) oi Fontinalh gracilis was dropped in for them to ^ivwn 
on. I might sa\ that as the Melanotaenia nigratts are very rarely 
on t he bottom, 1 considered \ hat the} spawned in mid-water, 
-.n gave them dense weed accordingly. In four d.'\^ small whitish 
globules were semi adhering to the plants, but the appearance 
of a shoal of frj was the first knoweige I had that the fish had 
spawned; the whitish globules were unfertilized eggs. The 
examples in the pond also spawned and as some hundreds oi the 
eggs hatched there, and the young thrived well, T took little or 
no trouble with those hatched in the aquarium. When very 
young, dozens oi the Pink-ear were seen swimming very close 
to the; the) were about 3/16 inch in length, greenish- 
black in color, and remarkably active lor so small a cream; e, 
As they became older and bigger the) went into deeper water 
and only seen when near the warm surface water. There 
were several spawnings and 1 found some oi the spawn attached 
to the roots of the water hyacinth. The eggs are about 1/16 inch 
hi diameter. 

Y^ hen placed in the pond the brilliance of the adults is not 
apparent, excepting when one ol them darts to the surface to 
secure an insect that has fallen in or alighted for a second; with 

Freshwater Fiske 

..a. NAT 
vox. x. 

their speed and alertness the) arc adepts at obtaining food in this 
manner. It is very interesting to note that before any fry were 
about I often heard them splashing- as they dashed to the surface 
to procure a dainH morsel, but when the young ones were present 
1 could not coax them to take a struggling fly from the surface 
Even a worm was gently tasted before being eaten, which further 
goes to show that the adults instinctively refrain from devouring 
the \ OUUg. 

iii mating, the male swims around the female with ah 
his fins expanded making repeated sideways motions or ''nod 
I he 
care of either eggs or young and the fry U:>.'d upon infusoric 

direction of the female. The species spawns in spring and 
nv Lime during the summer months. There is no parental 


This little Gudgeon occurs in the western streams of New- 
South Wales and in the River Murray system. In New South 
Wales it is known as the £< Western Carp Gudgeon." 'The species- 
is exceedingly common near the banks of the River Murray in 
South Australia, and is* found in numbers amongsl the densely 
growing Potamogeton crispus. Swimming actions, method o1 
feeding and character ol water preferred, are much as in Mogurii- 
da adspersa, although the species is common in the cloudy 
waters oi the main stream ol the River Murray. Individuals in- 
fested \\ 'tii parasitic worms, u Inch form tiny cysts under the 
skin, are no' uncommon the affected fish appearing as if dotted 
with small bubbles. 

In aquaria the fish cannot stand the water below 55°F., 
especially for prolonged periods ; the cold causing them to act 
temporarily as if they had some respiratory trouble, or suddenl} 
become partially suffocated. The attacks last only a few sec- 
onds, but nevertheless cause consternation to the aquarist; artific- 
ial heating will overcome the trouble. 

Although susceptible to cold, it is not usual for the fish t< , 
contract Saprolegnia as do other ol our native fishes when con- 
fined to aquaria in winter; still it. is not immune from this fungus, 
which sometimes appears on the fins, especially the caudal, alter 
transportation of the fisjh. Mo doubt the temperature of the 
water in i air rivers drops to the vicinity ol 50° F. m winter 
but the Fish proba'bb lies more or less dormant in the mud during 
this period. This little gudgeon is, in some respects, a more suit- 
able inmate for aquaria than either Mogurnda adspersa or Phil- 
ipnodon grandiceps, being much smaller than the first-named, and 
not so slueeish In movements as the last. It is almost always 

S.A. NAT. 
VOL. \. 

Ilx C. 



on the move searching fur food, while the males straggle for 
supremacy or skirmish for a secluded place, and endeavour to en- 
tice every passing female inside their selected nooks. 

The food consists mainb oi an] small live aquatic animal 
such as DaphnWj mosquito larvae, or small chopped earthworms, 
which are taken eagerly at am time. I have not as yet succeeded 
in persuading the species to acquire a taste for scraped meat, it 
being tasted and then rejected. 

The species varies in size, shape and colour; with two adult 
females one may have a greenish yellow body, and another oi 
the same size (about \-\ inch.), taken from a different locality, 
a beautiful iridescent colouration. The mature males usually have 
pink dorsal and anal fins, which deepen to red towards the breed- 
ing season, and also Faintly defined vertical black markings on the 
body most noticeable m the immature specimens. One adult 
male in my collection has neither of these distinctions, only the 
blunt head and male-like actions making the sex apparent. 

During a trip to Mannum on 13th November, 1927, I col- 
lected about 20 examples from amongst Potamogeton, They 
were fed on mosquito larvae and on this diet grew and fattened 
wonderfully well, several oi the females becoming ripe early in 
February ; 1928. \t this time I noticed a male trying to entice a 
female to a secluded corner o( the aquarium. On February 24th 
1 transferred a pair to a freshly planted 8 gallon tank containing 
new water. Three days later the female spawned, this pair did 
not make use of the stones which were arranged for them, but: 
chose a side ol the tank about 2 inches from the surface oi the 
water. Fhe ova arc only about hall the size ol those of 
Mogutnda adspersa^ but otherwise are very similar, bein^ elon- 
gate and arranged closely together. The male guarded and aera- 
ted the eggs in the same manner as described lor Mogurnda ad- 
spersa. On the third day after spawning the eggs disappeared, 
apparently eaten by the parents. The tank in which these fish 
were installed was in such a position that I had to reach over it 
to feed fish in tanks higher up, and on each occasion' the male 
would leave the eggs, returning again after a while. Probably he 
considered the site he had chosen not private enough, and relin- 
quished his charge. Further attempts to induce them to spawn 
during the late summer were futile. 

Gale (4) records the breeding habits of the Fire-tailed Gud- 
geon (Carassiops galli, OgHby), a southern Queensland species 
which became Introduced into the Botanic Gardens, Sydnev, and 
in this form also the male cares for the e«-£S in the same wav. 

(4) Gale. Aquarian Nature Studies. 1915, p. 20. 

iboriginal Rock Carvinss 

■ \. N VI. 
\ I'L. X. 

(Contribution from the South Australian Museum). 

By Herbert M Hale, Curator, and Norman B. Tindale, 

(Plate I, and text fig. 1.) 

During the last Jew years a number of papers have bcec 
published de*$cribing aboriginal rock carvings in South Australia. 
'ncised patterns or "intaglios'' in the Flinders Ranges and th< 
vicinity have in particular attracted considerable attention. We 
therefore deem it advisable to furnish a feu further notes a.nd 
records which have lately come to our notice in die hope that 
further research in the areas mentioned will be stimulated.- There 
is evidence -to show that aboriginal carvings are quite numerous in 
South Australia, and it is desirable to have complete records and 
descriptions of all series. 


Basedow (i) figures a design from Deception Creek which 
is strongly suggestive pf a platypus; it seems that this animal does 
nnt now occur m the Inferior, or at most, is exceedingly rare there. 
We have now to record a somewhat analogous example, namely 
a carving a yard or more in length, which appears to be a rep- 
resentation of the head of a crocodile. The intaglios amongst 
which this design occurs are situated about 200 yards from Panara- 
mitee Creek, on a saltbush plain some three miles north of Panar- 
amitee station. We are indebted to Mr. C. A. Harden for the 
accompanying photograph of this figure (pi. 1, fig. 1.) The 
locality is approximately 175 miles south-east from Wilpena 
Pound and- is on the range of the Maraura tribe, it is perhaps 
significant that a fabled creature likened to a serpent or crocodile 
features man old native legend which is quoted bv C. IT. Harris 
(2) in an account of Wilpena. He writes: — 

"The following- story, gleaned long ago from some members 
of the Woolundunga ' and Kokatha tribes, is' supposed to have 
reference, to this locality. It must be understood by the reader 
that both sun and moon are- believed to return from west to 
east by various underground passages, sleeping as they go: but 
the moon takes shorter journeys than the sun, setting 
wherever it can find a convenient place for the purpose; and is 
suspected-of a good deal erf 'artful dodging.' For instance, when 
too near -the sun to be comfortable it makes a short journey and 

(1) Basedow, Joiirn, Roy. Anthrop. Inst.. xliv 5 1914, p. 205 

pi. V,b. 

(2) Harris, Public Service Review, x, 1903, p.p. 21-22. 



The Soitth Australian Naturalist. Vol. x. No. 2, 


I, V 

fig. I. Aboriginal rock carvings of crocodile head, Panaramitee. 

Fig. 2. Aboriginal ruck carvings of kangaroo tracks, near Leigh 




S.A. N vr. 

VOL. X. 

By II. 1/. Halt and N. B. Tindale _3i_ 

r a good way behind, as 

gets up m tront oi the sun nest da] 

the case may be. 

"One night the moon (Mickacacka) stopped to rest on a 
•high hill (yoontitchie), and being a thirsty soul was attracted by 
some water near, so slid down the hill to get a drink, thereby 
scraping off a good deal (-1 kopi [pipeclay] and mica, which with 
loose stones filled up the water-hole. A fabled creature (serpent 
or crocodile) named Kaddi-kra, probably one of the Kaddi-murka 
from Cooper's Creek, nice! to seize it, but Mickacacka avoided 
capture by going under then and there, and was seen no more 
that night. 

"This Kaddi-kra had ravaged the country for several genera- 
tions, during which he had devoured every Jiving thing that came 
his way, and had now secured the aid of the great: sorcerer 
Kuditya and oilier bad spirits (Pokerbie, Koochie, Dlarbie, and 
Mooljewank) to entice the moon down to him; but Muldarbie s 
the strongest oi the many evil powers that molest a harmless 

^ people, c'ame upon the scene with boomerangs of lire, and 'big 
one grumble, grumble", lie forced Kadui-kra to go underground 
as the moon had done, and piled earth and rocks over him. The 
site of this occurrence is alleged to be Wilpena (the place of 
bent lingers) and the circumstance explains why the aborigines 
from the Murray to Fowler's Bay fear Muldarbie more than any 
other spirit. Kaddi-kra, however, is still alive, burrowing his 
way westward in hope of finding the moon.'' 

"Many a dttsk] warrior now departed chanted with the 
greatest glee the following ejniltant stanza: 

"( Jar, gardij gundigar, 
Ivaddi-kra koodigar kuntigar 
Gar gar" 
which he repeated to his admiring audience over and over again, 
with changing inflection and varying rapidity of utterance. The 
sentiment expressed had. reference to Kaddi-kra ? s progress and 
an fort unate prospects, somewhat as follows : 
tf_ "Aha! on the track is Kaddikra. 

Aha! he comes not back our lives to mar, 

Many times since the occupation of the country by white men 
Tumbling sounds have been heard between Lake Torrens and 
Flinders Range. These are really earth tremors, but give sup- 
port in the aboriginal mind to the superstition that some power- 
ful monster is burrowing underground." 

If we accept the large carving at Panaramitee as being a 

S.A. NAT. 

32 Aboriginal kock Carvings vol. x. 

representation of a crocodile head (and it certainly appears to 


such) some interesting questions are involved; as above-mentioned 

t le statement that the legendary Kaddi-kra was said to resero 


a serpent or crocodile is also suggestive. It is difficult to under- 



si and how knowledge ol the form and characteristics oi 


crocodile could permeate to the Interior, and one is led to 1 


assumption that these Flinders Range natives were at some r 

a st. 

period familiar with the reptile. 


v-V *r •*$ \_ 

f '" - v - ? 

/, ;," S \ 





* ' ft J ' 

r * * 1 

• ' * * J X / 

•^ t 


1 V* 1 

\ r- / s ^ 

\. £ / ** — \ ^> 

\ ? \ / * \ \ 

*■ ■> /Ji\i \ / 



'- '-'" _ s~^^ 

\ £«/'*' W* "^-.;-'' ^ — ^ 


Fig. 1. 

Rough Sketch of Aboriginal work on Rocks near Mannahill 

" (3) Hale and Tindale, Roc. S. A«st. Mus.. iii. 1925. p. 52. 

S.A. XAT. 

vol. x. By If. M . Hair and N. H. Tindak 33 


Previously we noted (3) that Air. E. G. Waterhouse sent a 
description and specimen of intaglios from Mannahiil to the 
Museum in 1902. We have now seen a letter written by his 
brother, Mr. S. A. Waterhouse, dated June Sth 3 1903, and en- 
closing a sketch of some carvings in this locality, (text fig. L). 
Mr. S. A. Waterhouse writes "1 enclose a small sketch showing 
aboriginal tattoo work, or in other words a native map. . . . We 
[h. G. and S. A. Waterhouse] have recently discovered quite an 
Art ( Jailer) of tins work and by all appearance some of the tattoos 
must be oi very ancient date, and there are many other symbols 
and characters imprinted in the stone including men and animals; 
the carvings only occur on rocks of very smooth and polished 
surface, . . . The scene of operations is on the side of a low hill 
within 3 miles from Mannahiil Railway station." 


In his 1914 paper, quoted above, Basedow states that Mr. 
j. R. B. Love informed him that he knew of two or three groups 
of carvings in the vicinity of Leigh Creek:, now known as Copley. 
■ In l f ni Mr. Love, at the request of the late Sir Edward Stirling, 
cut (Hit a small portion of one of these groups and sent it to the 
Museum, with the following note "1 have examined these carv- 
ings and am sorry to say that as the best executed specimens are 
on the sides of huge masses of rock which will not split, and which 
I could not cut with a hack-saw, I know of no way in which thev 
could be removed. I have secured, however, a small piece bear- 
ing two dingo tracks and two kangaroo tracks. Though not 
nearly as well carved as some the specimens — the best groups 
(three places) arc on North Moolooloo — this piece may still 
prove interesting as an example, perhaps, of prehistoric work; 
the present blacks disclaim any knowledge of these carvings." 

This piece of clav-slate, which is about a foot in length, is 
shown in pi. 1, fig. 2; the patterns represent tracks of the hind 
feet of a kangaroo and, apparently, those of the fore feet of the 
same animal: it will be noted that each of the two last-named 
tracks (which Mr. Waterhouse considered are dingo tracks) has 
^ six digits. Portion of a further carving, forwarded from the same 
5 neighbourhood by Mr. Love a vear later consists of the hinder 
Half of a lizard. 

Air. G. B. J. Roper, who is now living at Second Valley, in- 
forms us that there arc aboriginal rock carvings of lizards, snake?, 
emu-tracks, etc.. on Yankanina station, 15 miles from Angepina, 
and also a further series at Dulkaninna. 50-60 miles north-east 
of Marree. 

S.A, NAT, 

34 Excursions vol. x. 

In our aforementioned paper (3)_we quoted Mr. E. G. 
Waterhouse's description (in lilt.) of heaps of stones at Outalpa.. 
Mr. Waterhouse recently gave us the additional information that 
on the open plain at Balcanoona Station, 40 miles or so west of 
Lake Frome, there are artificial mounds of stones, which, accord-^ 
ing to the aborigines of the district, were placed there by their 
people to act as hiding places or screens when kangaroo-hunting 



The leader. Mr. E. II. Ising, explained the character of the 
flora growing in the quartzite soil ol this district and pointed 
out various species of plants of interest. 


A large party ventured aboard the launch but the weather 
conditions prevented going beyond the breakwater, so that opera- 
tions were confined to the Harbour and Light's Pass. Interesting 
hauls were made bur no novel forms were secured. 


A tine number turned out and t he weather proved most 
suitable. The launch went on I some distance beyond the spot 
where the "Norma" wreck still makes a centre for snapper 
enthusiasts. Many hauls ol most interest ing material were 
obtained including varieties ol sponge crabs, hermit crabs, and 
seaweed crabs, sponges oi many types, various crustaceans and 

The shells oi Lima, a little bivavle thai gets along by vigor- 
ously flapping its two shells were Found most abundantly as were 
many forms of tunicatea and holothurians. 

Mr. W. j. Kimber spoke on the wonderful life histories of 
mam' ol the forms of life collected making special use of the 
material to illustrate the many ways in which the various living 
creatures manage to elude their rapacious enemies. 

Mr. E. C. Cole spoke on the preparation and management 
ol aquaria both marine and freshwater. Tn response to requests 
the editor promised that some articles dealing with the South 
Australian forms of Echinoderms would appear in the Naturalist 
at an early date. 

The lecturer gave a most informative talk on the methods 
adopted in growing rice and other crops in japan. Java, and 
other countries which he had personally investigated. A large 
number of excellent views including garden scenes and tropical 
bcenery. contributed to the interest of the lecture. 

P. A. HAT. 





ON OCTOBER 1.6, 1928. 

The substance of this lecture has already appeared in the 
pages oi "Naturalist." On the same evening Mr. Ising spoke 
on some native plants found bv him in the railway reserve at 
Mile End. 

Dr. Cleland and Mr. [sing gave a brief account of the work 
of the Herbarium Committee and Air. Ising read a paper on the 
work of the Committee and its use in regard to the Botanical 
study of this State. 

Exhibits were tabled by several members. Dr. Cleland 
showed a specimen of the Water Malice (Eucalyptus oleosa). 
Caustic Bush (Sarcostemma australe) and Sea-grass (Cymodocea 
antarctic a) together with examples of the fibres obtained from 
Posidonia australis oi the Gulfs. Mr. A. J. Wiley showed sam- 
ples of his expert work in turning various native timbers, showing 
to great advantage the wonderful variety of colour and grain. 
The Rev. H. A. Gunter showed an albino form of the reddish. 
orchid Lyperantkus nigricans from Highbury. 

NOVEMBER 20th, 1928. 

The evening was taken up by a series of 
B. Cleland, Messrs. B. B. Beck and E, 
vferrecl to the rare shrub. Hymcnanthrra angustifolia 
in the Violet family, which he collected on .Vlt. Remarkable in 
September, 1927. The previous record of this plant was 45 
years earlier in the gorge of the Onkaparinga; Mr. J. M. Black 
also collected it near the Torrens Valley Road in 1927 and Mr. 
E. 11. Ising collected it in the Alligator Creek, near Wilmington 
in October. 1928. Prf. Cleland also referred to several species 
of native pine, Callitris s and suggested that: C. glauca, (a conical 
shaped tree) grows at Wilpena and Alligator Creek, C. propinqua 
at the Pinery near Grange, and that C. robust a- is a West Austra- 
lian plant. 

Prof. Cleland visited Why alia. Euro Bluff, lower end. of 
Lake Torrens, thence eastwards across the railway line and then 
to Port. Augusta, and during the trip made a special study of the 
trees being pulled for sandalwood which is being sent to China* 
Fie found that the fragrant sandalwood Fusanus spicatus, is 
the tree used commercially and it was observed at Whyalla, Iron 
Knob, Nqnning. Hawker, Kingoonya and Tar,coola. It is a 
straggly tree of about 10 feet in height and is root parasitic on 
other plants. From Nonning a specimen of the wood fruits and 
leave* was shown; the nut is slightly pitted, almost smooth. 



nature notes by 
H. Ising. Prof- 


"Sandalwood 1 * of Syl. and IV. A. 

?.a. hat. 
vol. x. 

For comparison the two other S. A. species were mentioned as 
follows: — The bitter quandong {F. persicarivj) the nuts oi which 
are distinctly pitted bin not nearly so deeply as those oi the 
native peach; sweet: quandong or native peach, (F. acuvtlnatus) 
the nuts of which are deeply pitted and the fruit is edible. 
In the field these three species arc easily distinguishable. Anoth- 
er tree growing in the same class of country as the above is also 
called sandalwood but belongs to a very different family (Myop- 
oraceae) and is named Myoporurn [>iat year pit m ; this is not used 
for joss sticks. Prof. Cleland also exhibited some rare sea urchins 
he collected on the beach ;it Aldinga Bay; these had short spines 
and appeared to be a different species to the one usually found 
on our beaches having Jong spines. Mr. B. B. Beck gave an 
interesting description, aided by a number of photos, of the 
Alligator Creek, near Wilmington. The creek formed a deep 
gorge which, for its height, sheer precipices hundreds of feci down, 
ns rugged grandeur and altogether unique scenery , is unsurpas- 
sed in South Australia. Its difficulty of access and long walk 
To reach it has prevented it from being known except to a few 
venturesome naturalists and o1 hers. Mr. E. 11. [sing spoke on 
the botany oi (his creek and the surrounding country, including 
Alt. Remarkable. Mr. \\ . Ham exhibited a number of mineral 
specimens From near Kingscote, K.I., including archaeocyathinae, 
blue slates with fossils, basalt, fossil echinoides and barytes. 


Note on the Germs Eucatya (F itstnats), Nat. Ord. Santalaceae. 
In the Ivew Bulletin, 1<)27 (p. 195) Messrs. Sprague and 
Summerhayes discuss the naming of the genus Fusanus and. 
alter silting a lot of evidence, come to the conclusion that this 
name cannot stand and substitute T. L. Mitchell's name of 
Eucatya in its place. Bemnam (I) treated the latter name as 
a synonym oi Fusanus. Our species therefore are now as fol- 
lows :— 

1. The Native Peach or Quandong with edible fruit (Eucarya 

acuminata (R.Br.), Sprag. et Summ.). 

2. The bitter Quandong (A". Murrayana, Mitchell). 

3. '1 he fragrant Sandalwood which is used commercially in 

this State nnd also in West Australia (E. spicata (R.Br.), 
Sprag. et Summ.) 
(1.) Flora Austral. 

\ member of the Section is desirous of disposing of a col- 
lection of minerals (including rare Broken Hill specimens) and 
case. Particulars from Mr. B. B. Beck or Mr. W. Ham. 


1. Exploring the Universe: The Incredible Discoveries of Recent Science. 

By Henshaw Ward. A well-written account of the problems which 

Science has undertaken to solve in recent times. 

2. The Reptiles and Amphibians of South Australia. By the late Edgar R. 

Waite, F.L.S., C.M.Z.S. Edited by Herbert M.^ Hale, Curator, S.A, 
Museum. Deals with the 'Turtles, Crocodiles, Lizards, Snakes, Frogs, 
and Toads of our State, and contains an appendix on the treatment 
of snake-bite. Interestingly written and profusely illustrated, this vol- 
ume con amount ef accurate information regarding 
the reptiles and amphibians of our State,, form of UTe about which 
the man in the street has usually very vague and largely incorrect ideas. 

The South Aus 

The Journal of the Field Naturalists' Section of th« Royal 

Society of South Australia and of the South Australian 
Aquarium Society. 

VOL. X- 


Plants of the Encounter Bay District. By J. B. Cleland, M.I) 37-40 

South Australian Trees, No. 7 {Eucalyptus cosmopkylla, F.v.M.). By 

E. H. Ising 41 " S0 

Excursions "■ 

S.A. Shell Collectors' Club. By F. Trigg 51-52 

Our Exchanges " 

: o: 

The authors of papers are responsihle for the facta 
recorded and opinions expressed. 

Address of the Section: O/o Royal Society's Booms, Institute 
Building. North Terrace, Adelaide. 

Published Quarterly 

Single Copy-NINEPENCE 

Obtainable from Cole's Book Arcade, No. 14 Bundle Street, 


Felstoad & Omsby, Print. Gilbert Place, Adelaide, 'Phone C. 1631 


Chairman — Mr. Herbert M. Hale. 

Vice-Chairmen — Messrs. A. J. Morison and Rev. H. A. Gunter. 

Hon. Secretary — Mr. E. H. Ising. 

Hon. Assistant Secretary — Miss J. M. Murray. 

Hon. Treasurer — Mr. F. Trigg. 

Hon. Magazine Secretary — Miss Roeger. 

Hon. Librarian — Miss M. Roeger. 

Hon. Press Correspondent— Mr. D. J. McNamara. 


Professor J. B. Cleland, Messrs. J. F. Barley, W. H. Selway, J. A. HogAn, 

T. W. Nettelbeck, Dr. C. Fenner, Mr. W. Champion Hackett and 

Miss E. Ireland. 

Professor J. B. Cleland, Dr. C. Fenner, Messrs. E. Ashby, W. H. 

Selway, J. M. Black, J. F. Bailey, A. M. Lea, F. Angel, W. Champion Hackett, 

B. B Beck, J. Neil McGilp, J. Sutton, W. J. Kimber. Captain S. A. White, 

and Mr. J. F. L. Machell. 

Hon. Auditors— Messrs W D. Reed, F.C.P.A., and A. J. Morison. 

'The South Australian Naturalist"— Hon. Editor,^ Mr. Wra. Ham, FR.E.S. 

Address: University, Adelaide. 


June 15— Museum. Entrance, 2.30 p.m. General. President. 

29— Morialta. Tram. 2 p.m. Botany. Prof. J. B. Cleland. 
Julv 13— Semaphore (north). Train, 2.05 p.m. Shore Life. Shell Club. 

27— Highbury. Paradise Train, 2 p.m. Orchids, etc. Rev. H. A. Gunter. 

Auir. 10— Belair, National Park. Train, 2.20 p.m. Orchids. Dr. R. S. 

Rogers, M.A. " ' " T ' f - 

24 — Kingston Park Reserve. SeaclifT Train. 2.06 p.m. Native Flora. Mr. 

J. A. Hogan. 

Sept. 7 — Paradise, Mr. J. II. Coulls'. Charabanc. General. Mr. J, Kimber, 


♦June 18 — "Flinders Ranges and Further Inland," by Rev. A. M. Trengrovc. 

♦July 16 — "Some Critical Aspects of Australian Anthropology," by Dr. H. Base- 
dow, M.P. 

Aug. 20 — Annual Meeting and Exhibits. 

*Sept. 17— "The Stellar Universe," by Prof. R. W. Chapman, C.M.G,, VI, A,. 
B.C.E., F.R.A.S. 

Oct. 15 — Exhibit Evening. — Mr. A. M. Lea, K.E.S., "Some New Guinea Ens 

2. Mr. J. G. Wood, "Wallace's Line." 3. Mr. W, Mam. "Sea Urchins," 

Nov. 19 — Exhibit Evening: — I. Mr. E. A. S. Thomas, "Native Timbers"; 2, Mr, 
E. 11. [sing, "The Heath Family of Plants." 3. Mr. W. J. Hosking, 
•These Lectures will be given with Lantern Slides in the Lecture Room. 


South Australian Naturalist. 

VOL. X. 


No, 3 


Second List of Additional Records. 
By |. B. Cleland and J. M. Black. 

W-e published our first list of the vascular plants of the 

" for 




Encounter Bay district in the "South Australian Natural 
February — May, 1925, and a list of additions in May, l c >27 
'.hen further search and revision have enabled us to add 5 

m":i cics and 1 variety, 42 or the species and the 
native plants, and 16 introduced. One variety 

1 van 

in the old list 

has been raised to specific rank. The total number of vascular 
plants now known for the district is approximately 732 (excluding 
12 varieties) of which 588 are native and 144 arc- intr iuced 
species. In our last paper we suggested that fifty < r more, 
chiefly introduced or ephemeral spring specie^ doubtless re- 
mained to be recorded. The number in this paper is 
58, and 


we must expect 20 or so more still aw 

covery, It is interesting to note that this close survey 1 
suited in discovering two species (in Cyperaceae and Resti< 
respectively) new to science; in finding- Zostera M ' ucilen in 
in the Hmdmarsb River, the first time we believe that a 2 
has been found flowering in this State; in discovering i 
Waitpinga road, just before the house ol Mr. Dennis is reac 
patch oiGahnia aneistrophylla, a Western Australian Cyper 
-plant; and in finding the rare Leucopogon Clelandu in this d 
cnl] the third occasion on which it has been seen. In additi 
include m the paper certain corrections 
nomenclature, some additional localities 
a \c\v notes. 

F I LIC A LES.—O pkioglos sum coriaceum, A. Cunn.. 
Tongue, flats at Encounter Bay. 

LYCOPODIACEAE.—PhyllQglossum Drummondii Kunze, 
additional locality, near Hall's Creek, Sep. 

POT AMOGETON ACE AE. —Zoster a Mudleri Irmisch, in 
flower, Hindmarsh R. estuary, Jan., 1928; Potamogeton pectinatus, 
L., Waitpinga Creek, Jan. 

.ls re- 


:■ the 

eel, a 

ceo us 


m we 

some alterations in 

or rare species, and 

Laer s 

S.A. NAT., VOL. X. 

38 The ("units q[ Encounter Bay Distric t. May, 1929 . 

SCHEUCHZERIACEAE.—Triglockin centrocarpa, Hook., 

flats and hills at Encounter Bay, Aug., Sep. 

HYDROCJIARITACEAE.—Halophila ovdis (R. Br.) Hook. 
f., one leaf washed ashore at Encounter Bay, May. 

GRAMINEAE, — *Ehrharta longiflora, Sin.. Hindmarsh 
Valley (cme. plant). A scries of specimens of Stipa from En- 
counter Bav and other S. Australian localities was recently sub- 
mitted by one of us to Kew. The Director, in reporting on these, 
lias furnished the following identifications of species from this 
district: — Stipa tenuiglumis, Hughes, Jan.; S. eremophila. 
Reader — rather young, it has the floret of S. eremophila rather 
than of S. iusca; S. variabilis, Hughes, Encounter Bay, Sep., also 
on limestone. Pt. Elliot, Jan., with the added note, "the leaves 
are rather more rigid and rougher than usual;" S. falcata, Hughes, 
Aug., Sep. *Aira minuta. L., seems to flower earlier than A. 
caryopkyllra; *Hordeum maritimii7n, With. 

* CYPERACEAE. — Schoenus Tepperi, E.v.M., common as a 
dense sward on stony hills, etc.; S. monocarpus^ J. M. Black (Trs. 
Roy. Socy., S.A., LIL, 1928), a new species found at Back Valley; 
Gahnia lanigera (R.Br.), Benth., in low patches, smaller than 
G. deusta; CAadiuvi Mariscus (L.) Pohl., already recorded, has 
been found also on a branch of Waitpinga Creek; Gahnia ancis- 
tiophylla, F.v.M., hitherto only known from West Australia. 

RESTIONACEAE.—Lepytodia vdlicviae, J. M. Black 
(Trs. Roy. Soc, S.A.. LIL, 1928), a new species found at Back 

LILIACEAE. — * Allium? sp., a small onion or leek has estab- 
lished itself ?is a small colony of a dozen or so individuals on the 
banks of the Inman, near the bridge. These have been present 
now for several years. A single plant of *Asparagus asparagoides t 
Wight, the 'Smilax" of florists, a garden escape, was found in the 
scrub 8 miles along the Inman Road, far from habitations. 

ORCHID ACE AE,— Crypt ostylis longifolia, R.Br., already- 
recorded, has been found in a swamp at Back Valley, |an. 

CASUARINACEAE.—In the old cemetery on 'the ridge 
road. Bald Hills, are several very large She-oaks {Casuarina 
stricta, Ait.). Though forking near the base, the larger of the 
two stems of one was about 34 inches in diameter at breast height; 
Miss Macklin (Trs. Roy. Soc, S.A., LI., 1927), has identified 
four species of the dwarf < C. distyla complex in the Encounter 
Bay district, viz., C. striata, Macklin, upright, twiggy, with cones 
near the ends of the branches, 2 to 15 ft. high; C. MueUeriana, 
Miq.. more rounded, often with a reddish tinge, cones rather 
large, greenish brown; C. pahidosa, Sieb.. var. robusta, Macklin, 

S *Mf^ T i'929 L ' ' /■ B. Cl eland, M.D. } and /. M. Black. _ 39 

lower plant, anthers rusty; and C. pusUla, Macklin, low cushion- 
like plant in sand, anthers rusty. 

LORANTHACEAE.—Loranthus Preissii, Miq., previously 
recorded for just outside the district (Hay's Flat) has been seen 
on a planted Acacia (probably //. dodonaeifolia) in the Inman 
Val!ev. near Raid Hills: /.. pendulus, Sieb., two to four Rowers in 
the umbel, sometimes two sessile, grows on stringy bark (Eucalyp- 
tus Buxleri) on the ridge road at Bald Hills. 

A1Z0ACEAE. — *Mesembrianthemum aurantiacum, Haw., 
a garden escape, has formed a colony near the Public Hospital site. 

PORTULACACEAE. — Calandrhna pygmaea } F.v.M., Sep. 

CARYOPHYLLACEAE.—*Moenchia erecta (L.) Gaertn.— 
Mey-et Scherb., on hills, Sep.; *Minuartia levin 'folia (L.) lliern., 
on hills, Sep.; *Silene noctufna } F., sandhills. 

RANUNCUL ACE AE,— Ranunculus parviflorus i L-. hills, 

CRUCIFERAE.—Cardamine hirsuta, L., Sep.; *Draba 
z i erna, L., Sep. 

CRASSULACEAE—Crassula colorata (Nees), OstenL 
Sep.; C. macrantka (Hook. I\), Diels et Pritzel, Sep.; C. pedicel- 
losa iF.v.iVL). OstenL, Bluff. 

ROSACEAE. — *Alchemttla arvensis, Scop., hills, Sep. 

LEGUMINOSAE. — Acacia iarinosa, Lindl., semi-swamp 
ground north-west of the Bluff; A, calamijolia, Sweet, in the 
cemeterv at Encounter Bay; a blacluvood {Acacia melanoxylon, 
R. Br. ..) at Hall's Creek has a trunk 27 ins. in diameter; Daviesia 
sp. (not in flower) near D. divaricata, Benth., New-land's Head; 
*Trifoliwm arvense, L.;* Melilotus alba, Destr., Bokhara Clover, 

RHAMNACEAE. — Cryptandra tomentosa, Lindl. 

DILLENIACEAE.—Hibbenia sericea (R. Br.) should be 
var. :cabri\olia, J. M. Black; //. stricta, R. Br. (var. glabrxuscula, 
Benth., already recorded), Tnman Valley hills. 

GUTTIFERAE, — Hypericum gramineum, Forst, f., instead 
of //. japonic it in, Thunb., already recorded. 

VIOL ACE AE. — Viola Sieberiana, Spreng., near HalPs Creek, 

THYMELAEACEAE.—Pimdea spathulata, Labill., near 
Hindmarsh Tiers. 

MYRTACEAE. — Melaleuca pubesce-ns, Schau., replaces M. 
parviflora, Lindli., already recorded; M. fasciculiflora, Benth., in 
scrub round the edge of swampy land towards Newland's Head 
(recorded for the district in Black's Flora). 

UMBEIJJFERAE.—Hydrocotyle pilifera, Turcz., near 
Hall's Creek. Sep., previously recorded in this State from between 


S.A. NAT. 

The Pian/s ot Encounter Hay Put net. _May, 

Marree and Strailgways Springs, and from Muloowurtie, Y.P.; 
Eryngium vtsiculosum, Labill., previously recorded by us for 
Hindmarsh Tiers, is common on the ridge road, Bald Hills. 1 he 
plants cannot stand grazing^ and so have only survived on the 
roadside, not in the fields. Though prickly and very like a star- 
thistle, E: rrsiculosvm forms a very pretty tabic decoration with 
Its deep blue globular heads of flowers. 

EPACRIDACEAE.—Le-ucopogon Gleiandii, Cheek in Rower 
in a dry swamp north-west of the Bluff, May (previously only 
known from Coonalpyn and Kangaroo Island) ;Acrotncht affwis 
DC, in the same locality (previously known in this State only 
from Coonalpyn and Beachport). 

LOGANIACEAE. — Logania recutva, J. M. Black, an the 
Waitpinga-Bald Hills Road'; L. crassifolia, R. Br-, var. minor, J. 
ML Black, Pt. Elliot, previously recorded as a form of L. ovata. 

LABIATAE, — Prostanthera aspalathoides, A. Curm., Is re- 
corded in Black's Flora for Encounter Bay; P, serpyllifotia (R. 
Br.) Briq. replaces P. viicrophylla; P. chlorantha, F.v.M., Sfew- 

land's Head scrub. 

SCROPHULARI AC EAR. —Veronica Derwentia, uuir., 

waterfall, off lnman \ alley. 

RUBIACEAE.—Opercularia titrpis, F.v.M., in Black's Flora 
for Encounter Bay; Galium ciliarc, Hook, f., on cliffs at New- 
land's Head; Opercularia ovata. Hook, f.. already recorded, also 
in the old cemetery at Bald Hills. 

CUCURBIT 'ACE AE.—*Citrullus vulgaris, Schrad., wild 

GOODENIACEAE. — Goodenia primulacea, Sch.. instead of 
G. geniculata, R. Br.; Scaevola calendulacea (Andr.), Druce in- 
stead o\ S. suaveolens, R. Br.; S. linearis, R. Br. is var. conferti- 
folia, |. M. Black; Dampiera lavandulacea, LindL is present, and 
probably it is to this species that the record of D. rosmarinifolia, 
SehL applies. 

STYLIDIACEAE.—Levenhookia dubia, Sond., replaces L. 
Sonderi, F.v.M.; L. pusilla, R. Br. 

COM POSIT AE.—OIearia grandijlora, Hook,, nil's near 
Hindmarsh Tiers; 0. revoluta, F.v.M. var. minor, Benth.. Tunka- 
lilla. Jan.; Brachycome hssocarpa. Black; Cassinia complanata, 
Black; Isoetopsis graminifoliaj Turcz.. hills; Podospermu angus- 
tijolium, Lab. ; Cardials tenuiflortu, CurtJS, slender thistle; off 
lnman Valley; *Cirsmm Acarna (L.), Moeneh. Soldier Thistle, re- 
corded in Black's Flora lor "towards Pt. Elliot;" Vittadinia 
tenuissima (Benth.) Black replaces V. australis var. tenuissima 
a!»T?dy recorded 



5. A. NAT., VOL. X. 

May, 1929. South Australian Trees.. , 41 


No. 7- Cabbage or Scrub Gum {Eucalyptus cosmophylla, F.v.M.) 

Bv Ernest H. Ismg-. 

This species lias, so far, only been found in South Australia 
and it was Mueller who discovered it (1) in 1855 somewhere in. 
the Mount Lofty Range. Unfortunately Mueller did not give 
any precise locality, which is so desirous in a type specimen. 
The name "Scrub Gum" has no doubt originated from the shrub- 
by nature of the plant as it is usually seen as a small, crooked 
tree or shrub. In this it approaches the mallee type and there 
are often several stems growing together, although it is not known 
if they arise from the same root-stock. Occasionally specimens; 
have been recorded growing into fair size trees and Maiden (2) 
menti ns one of 50 feet in height seen at Kuitpo by Mr. Walter 


Eucalyptus eosinophylic, F.v.M. The name <£ cosmophylla" 
means regular-leaved and refers to the two equal halves of the 
base Df tlie leaf. 

Habit.— Usually shrubby, often a small crooked tree of 12 
to 15 feet in height, sometimes higher. 

Bark.— The trunk Mas a smooth bark which is of a flaky 
nature, i.e. it decorticates in small flakes or patches about the size 
of one's hand. This species falls into the bark group ^Lnopk- 
loiae" (smooth barks or gums) of Maiden who describes the 
bark (3 ) as follows : — "A smooth-barked tree, the exfoliating 
bark coming off in irregular patches, never hanging in strips." 
The baric is of a pale grey colour, and is perhaps coarser at 
the base, the higher part of the stem and branches are smoother 
and whiter. 

Leaves, Sucker*. In shape they vary from almost circular, 
sometimes broader than long, to oval and in size they also vary 
considerably. From about half an inch they obtain a length of 

opposite but they soon become alternate, they are dull green 
with the lower surface paler; the intramarginal vein is situated' 
from one-sixteenth to one-eighth of an inch from the edge. The 
[ oint is always blunt, in the lower leaves it is apiculate and 
then gradually becomes less obtuse as the later leaves develop. 
* 1 he leaves described here are those growing from the lower 
brandies after the plan'; died off at the top. 


South A \%i stf ail an 'frees. 

s.a, nat,, vol, x. 
May, 1929. 

Mature Leaves. Ovate to lanceolate, falcate, and 4 to 7 
niches in length, the longer ones acuminate and often booked. 
Surfaces equally green and somewhat shiny, [ntrarnargina! vein 
hardly one-eighth of an inch from the edge and the bases of the 
leaf usually very regular. Texture leathery and therefore stiff. 

The Buds. The buds are large being -;| of an inch 



three-eighths of an inch wide, the tube somewhat longer than 

the cap which is produced into a short blunt point; they are almost 
top -shaped except that the lid is more pointed. They arc usually 
arranged in threes, the centre one only with a very short stalk and 
have hardly any common stalk to the umbel. 

The Flowers. The flowers are large, white with anthers 
oblong, opening in parallel slits. When fully expanded the flow- 
ers exceed an inch in diameter. 

The Fruit. Hemispherical in shape with a broad base and 
truncate at: top. The valves (4 to 5) are somewhat sunk below 
the raised rim. Occasionally there are one or two ridges down 
the side but they are not prominent. The fruits range from half 
to three quarters of an inch long and the same in width. 

The trees growing at Waterfall Gully are situated on the 
steep sides of the gullies chiefly in the higher situations where the 
sandstone comes to the surface and lies about in broken fragments. 
This habitat would be a dry one as the sandstone is of a porous 
nature and the rainfall would quickly disappear in the rocky soil. 
The Mount Lofty Range habitat is referred to by J. E. Brown 
(5) who mentions this species as growing on coarse-grained sili- 
ceous grits. At Victor Harbour he quotes it growing in low-lying 
moist situations, sandy soil, and on Kangaroo Island in hollows 
and round edges of lagoons and claypans. 

The type of soil as observed by Teale (6) at Kuitpo is 
given as ''yellowish, gravelly, clay loam found on table top areas 
from soils derived from quartz schists, quartz mica and chloritic 
schists, felspathic schists of Pre Cambrian Age." 

According to Adamson and Osborn (7) this species is best 
developed on Fine ironstone soils derived from a solid, rather 
fine-grained ironstone rock and it occurs for the most parr on 
the relatively level ground on the tops ol ridges but can also 
maintain it sell on steep slopes; on some of the lower flat-topped 
ridges and watersheds the solid ironstone may be some distance 
below the surface and be overlain by 2-3 feet of a soil of a l^amy 
consistency which is very retentive of water in winter but becomes 
baked very hard and dry in the summer. Further this sj ecies 
is not confined to these hard ironstones but also occurs on nor- 

S.A. -NAT., VOL. X, 

May, 1929. E. 1L hmg, 43 ^ 

tions of ridges where the rock is a hard crystalline quartzite 
which weathers slowly to a shallow, rather compact soil; it is 
also occasionally found on the quartzitic ironstone gravels where 
the rock itself is impregnated with iron and where the soil is 
-shallow and sandy. 

Near Aldgate this species occurs in a small depression where 
the soil is deeper and of a loamy character although in the higher 
parts it is of a more sandy nature derived from the fairly abun- 
dant sandstone rocks. To the south-west of Aldgate it is also 
found in lowlying ground where the soil is deep and of a sandy- 
loam which would retain moisture even during the summer. 
This species appears to thrive on soils whose surfaces are totally 
different in appearance but whose composition or texture appears 
to be the same. 


This species is chiefly found as an associate of the stringy- 
bar!; forests which inhabit the higher parts of the Mount Lofty 
Range. It forms communities which can be traced to a definite 
soil type. 

No. 1. Stirling East to Aldgate. Between Stirling East and 
Aldgate there is some flat ground at the fool ol a steej hill 
where the scrub gum grows somewhat plentifully. The soil is 
fine-grained sandy loam and there would be a fair amount of 
moisture in the soil at the end of the winter. The specimens 
growing here are small trees of about 12 feet in height and of 
crooked, stunted growth generally. Associated here with 
the scrub gum was the white stringybark il:uc. obliqua) which 
was almost as abundant ; s the former, there were also s .-veral 
small trees of the yellow gum (E. leucoxylon). The largest 
shrubs here were Hakca idicina and the teatree {Leptospermum 
icoparium) growing as high as eight feet and others somewhat 
.smaller were blunt-leaved tea-tree ( /-. myrsinoides) and fringe 
myrtle (Calythrix tetragona). The vegetation type here is of 
a sclerophyllous nature, the larger plants not mentioned above 
are mostly included in the families Prolcaccar, I.egumv-iosae, 
Epacridaceae, and Dilleniaceae. Smaller plants consist of legumes, 
composites, rushes, lilies, goodenias and orchids. The plants in 
flower (30/1/28) were Lobelia gibbosa i Trachymene heterophylla 3 
Ixodia achUleoides, WahUnbergia graeUis 3 Dlckopogon strictus 
and Helichrysum scorpioides. 

Xo. 2. Aldgate to Bridgewater. Aboi't half a mile from 
Aldgate on the road to Bridgewater on a sloj c facing south the 
-scrub gum is again associated with the white stringybark in 
dense scrub. This slope extends for several h mdred yards and 

S.A. WAT., VOL. X. 

44 South Australian Trees May, 1929. 

there is a depression in the centre of it with a small crcekway. 
On the steeper slopes the most abundant shrubs are the two 
tea-trees {L, scopariuvi and L. myrsinoides), the large leaf bush- 
pea {Pultenaea daphnoides) and the beaked Hakea {II. rostrata) ; 
.these plants were S to 8 feet in height and covered much of the 
space between the trees. Other prominent shrubs oi smaller size 
were the scrub wattle {Acacia myrtifoliu), heath (Epacris im- 
pressa), Ixodia ackilleoides and a rush, Lepidosperma semiteres. 
Towards the depression the narrow-leaf bitter-pea (Daviesia 
corymbose) and the furze Hakea (H. idicina) appear in numbers 
and in the lowest part Leptospervium scopariuvi is most abundant 
to the extent of almost excluding every other species. Swamp 
plants such as Patersonia longhcapa, Gahnia psittacorum, Acacia 
verticil! ata and Villarsia exalt at a were noted in the lowest por- 
tion. Only a few specimens of the cabbage gum were growing in 
the wetter situation, and they did not extend far up the westerly 
slope ol the depression which supports a vegetation similar to the 
opposite slope. /','. cosviophylla approaches the ridge on the top 
of which are only a small number of this species, and associated 
with it in this habitat Is an abundance of PuUenaea involucrata, 
a spreading undershrub with a dense mass of small hairy leaves. 
The grass tree {X author? hoe a semi pi an a) and a rash (Lcpidos- 
pertna semiteres) grow in a fair quantity in this habitat. Aspect, 
habitat and soil play an important part in plant distribution as 
on the northerly slope of the ridge under review the chief tree 
is /:'. Baxterij the brown stringybark and here the soil is thickly 
strewn over with all sizes of sandstone rock. Proceeding in a 
westerly direction the cabbage gum was noticed on little ridges 
and at the head of gullies and on slopes and growing in scrub 
similar t i that already described. 

No. 5. \\ aterlall Gully , near Eagle-on-Hill. The steep slope 
near and below the main road just beyond the Eagle-on-Hill (at 
H miles Y° m Adelaide) has been investigated and a fair amount 
o! Euc, cosmophylla is found growing there. A very deev and 
steep gully leads from Mount Lofty summit in a westerly direc- 
tion and when Waterfall Gully is approached the northen slope 
deve ops a precipitous character, at this point also the gully 
bends south-west and a good view is obtained of the lower por- 
tior of Waterfall Gully. It is at this bend where the cabbage 
gum has been noted in its ecological relationships. On the 
northerly slope the cabbage gum is associated with the white 
and brown stringy-bark and with isolated trees of yellow gum; 
il is only a small tree and often shrubby in habit. The chief 


Fhe South Australian Naturalist, Vol. X., Xo. 3 

Plate 2, 


The habitat of Eucalyptus cosmophylld, with associated plant 
on the steeper slopes) as described in Xo. 2 par. p. 43. 

The South Australian Naturalist, Vol. X., No, 3 

Plate 3 

«- He 


¥ v 

vei t.nt 

Drawing showing botanical characters of Eucalyptus cosmo- 
phylla, 1. Mature fruits. 2. Branch with buds and leaves. 3 
Fruit showing the short pedicel. 4 and 5. Mature leaves. 6 and 7 
Juvenile leaves. 



6. A. NAT., VOL, 

May. 1929. 

E. II. Isini 


shrubs here arc Leptospermum myrsinoides and Acacia pyc&an- 
tha } .1. myrtifolia and Ixodia achilleoides while Hibbertia sericea 
(silky guinea-flower) is an abundant undershrub. Where a bend 
in the slope faces east the cabbage gum has Pultenaea daphnoides, 
Exocarpus cupressiformis and Hake a rostrata associated with it. 
VA group of this gum was surrounded by the white stringybark, 
a yellow gum and shrubs as mentioned above in this location 
with also dcrotriche serrtdata, Astroloma hit mrfii ta, Xanthorr- 
hoea semiplana and Halorrhagis teucrioides. Lower down the 
slope facing north-east, where E. cosmophylla still grew plenti- 
fully, plants of Calythrix tetragona, Pultenaea irtvolucrata t Hakea 
ulicina and Eucalyptus Baxteri were numerous, the yellow gum 
was als ) seen here. The soil of this habitat is coarse i.nd sandy 
with a large quantity of broken sandstone fragments on the sur- 
face and just below, 'l'liis is a cabbage gum-tea-tree association 
the dominants being E, cosmophylla and Leptospermum myrsin- 
oides with Hibbertia sericea sub-dominant. Still farther down this 
slope the cabbage gum becomes a small tree. On the southern 
slope oi this ridge at the head of a small gully shrubby specimens 
of this gum are growing in the shelter of the brown and white 
stringybark with plants of Hakea rostrata, Xanthorrhoea semi- 
plana, Hibbertia sericea and Dianella revoluta intermixed with it. 
On the western slope overlooking Waterfall Gully the cabbage 
gum is again associated with the brown stringybark and less of 
the yellow gum, with the usual shrubs of Leptospermum myrsin- 
oides in abundance and Hakea rostrata and CaJytkrix tetragona m 
fair quantities. 

No. 4. Longwood. At Longwood the cabbage gum is found 
(in one location) on a western slope near the top of a ridge assoc- 
iated with E. Baxteri which is the chief tree. The tea tree (Lep- 
tospermum myrsinoides) is again the dominant shrub while other 
less abundant shrubs are Banksia marginata, Casuarvna Sp. 
a. shrub of 6 to 7 feet in height, (probably C. Muellerxana, Miq.). 
Hakea rostrata, Pultenaea acerosa, var. acicularis and smaller 
plants of Isopogon ceratophyllus , Pimelea octophylla, Platylobium 
obtusattgulum, Hibbertia spp., Olearia Huegeln and Helichrysum 
Baxteri, This habitat had no surface stones but it was a dry 
situation, the soil was whitish to yellowish and of a sandy nature. 
Some distance from the above locality E. cosmophylla was found 
in a small swampy depression growing as a shrub of about 5 feet 
in height. Here the tea-tree (Leptospermum scoparium) was 
the dominating shrub of a uniform growth of about three feet 
in height. Hakea rugosa and Melaleuca gibbosa were represent- 
ed by a few shrubs, Burchardia umbellata and several rushes were 
present also two swamp plants of very small size, viz.. the green 
orchid Microtis atrata and the minute Mitrasacme distxhs. 


South Australian Trees. 

NAT., vol. x. 
May. 1929. 

No. 5. West ol Crafers. About half a mile west of 
Crafers a ridge runs in a westerly direction parallel to and on 
the south side of the main road. The cabbage gum occurs on 
the higher part (the lower part is still To be investigated) and 
where it was observed on a slope lacing west the soil was of a 
quartaite character with some surface stone. Mere it was assoc- 
iated with trees of Eucalyptus obhqua, E. leucoxylon and the 
native cherry, {Exocarpus ntpressiformis) and shrubs of Ixodia 
ach'illeoides were the dominant factor in tins stratum and less 
individual plants of Pultenaea daphnoides, Hakea rostrata, Acacia 
myrtitolia, and a fair quantity of Hibbertia strict a (a diffuse 
undershrub.) while Lepidosperma semiteres, TetratJicca pilosa, 
Acrotriche scrrulata and Di a veil a revoluta were the chief plants 
although not abundant, of the smaller vegetation. The above 
habitat led into a small gully with a westerly course and was dom- 
inated by E. obiiqua chiefly and by E. leucoxylon. E. cosinc- 
phylla occurred amongst these trees as scattered, shrubby indiv- 
iduals and where the gully flattened out in one place the cab- 
bage gum and tea-tree (Leptosperminn viyrsiniodes) took charge. 
A little higher up the gully investigation showed that besides the 
species mentioned above the following also occurred as infrequent 
units of uhc vegetation:- — 

Bursaria spinosa, Hak&a ulicina, Grevillea lavandulacea, Pim- 
clca spatliulata and he pi os permit m scoparium as shrubs and 
Lomandra dura, Hibbertia strict a as host to Cassytha glabella 
and juncus pavciilorus as smaller plants. 

Tn writing of this species J. E. Brown (I.e.) gives a genera! 
distribution "in the Mount Lofty Ranges from Waterfall Gully 
to the Onkaparinga River, in gullies and foothills of ridges. 
Always in cool parts — not inland. Between Yankahlla and 
Victor Harbor, Square Waterhole, Meningie and Coorong, South 

coast of Kangaroo Island, Marble Rang' 

t Lin; 


is one o 

f the very few species which South Aust 

rai: a can 
d in 

claim as its own as it is confined to this State. It is fqu 
the Mount: Lofty Range (in the higher paits chiefly), near 
Lincoln and on Kangaroo Island. 

On various excursions by members of our Section the occur* 
rence of E. cosmopliylla has been recorded in "The South Austra- 
lian Naturalist" the references are as follows: — 

Vol. II, Xo. L p. 8 (1920); at Kuitpo. 

Vol. Ill, No. 4. p. 58 (1922) ; at Myponga with E. fascicuhsa 
(pink gum). 

S.A. KAT., VOL. X. 

May, L929. £ //. /rot*. 47 

Vol. IV, No. 1, p. % (1922); Mt. Bold on ridge tops. 

t7 oI. IV, No. 2, p. Ill (1923); MacGillwray, K.I. 

Vol. V, No. 2. p. 100 (1924); Mt. Lofty with malice habit; 

I.e. p. 104; Alt. Lofty Range. 
Vol. \. No. 4, p. 136 (1924); Candy's Gully (Mt. Lofty 

Range) in flower. — 24.5.24. 

L.c.j p. 139; Waterfall Gully — in higher part as a stunted 

crooked, small tree. 12 to 20 fe*t in height, in flower. — 

Vol. VI, No. 3, p. 48 (1925); very common in Encounter Bay 

District (J. 13. Cleland). mallee-like to s mall trees, capsules 

oftm very large, in sand or sandy loam. 
Vol. VII, No. 1, p. 22 (1925); at Finniss. 
This species is recorded from Prospect Hill (9) near Mylor. 


As E, cosmophyHa is not a large tree generally the question 
of forestry and timber hardly need enter the discussion. Never- 
theless Mr. Walter Gill, late Conservator of Forests, supplied 
the late Mr. J. H. Maiden with the following note in this con- 
nection (8) : — "I took the opportunity of working some of it 
at Kuitpo, and on morticing the holes for slip-panel rails, found 
the timber to be quite the easiest cutting gum I have yet come 
across, as the . cliisel cuts it readily and the auger bores it with 
equal facility. So easy does it seem after working other gums 
such as E. leucoxylon, E, oblujua and E. fqsdculosa, that one 
almost begins to doubt its value for lasting. And yet I find that 
people in the districts where it does not grow are in the habit of 
netting it if they can for stockyard posts, as. combined with its 
easy working nature, it posses a character for lasting well in the 

The timber is red in colour. There is an excellent photo- 
graph of a large tree (for this species) taken by Mr. Walter Gill, 
in the Report of the Woods and Forest Department (11). The 
tree stands about 40 feet jn height and is about 3 feet in diameter 
at the base. This must be the largest of its kind ever recorded. 
Mr. Gill also records (12) that the lees of a table exhibited at the 
Government Tourist Bureau Kiosk at the Outer Harbor were 
made from this species. 


The 5 columns represent the districts as mentioned under IV, 
and the letters refer to the occurrence of a species in that district; 
the references are: — a - abundant: fa - fairly abundant; o - occas- 
ional; r - rare. 



VOL. X. 

48 South Australian It 












Tree stratum. 


Eucalyptus obliqua 






E. leucoxylon 




K. B&xteri 



Exocarpus cuprcssijormis 


Shrub stratum. 

Banksia margvnata 



Acacia pycnanlha 



Casuarina sp*. 



Bursarla spinosa 


Pultcnaca daphnoides 





Lept as permit m myrsinoides 






L, scoparium 





Acacia myrtijolia 




Xanthoffhoea semiplana 




Da eiesia cory m bosa 




Ixodia ackilieoidfs 






Hakea rostrata 





II. uiicDia 



II. rugosa 

Vulienaea accrosa, var acicidaris 

P. invoiucrata 


Isopogan ceratophyllus 

Daviesia uliclna 

I). brevifolia 

Acacia vertiallata 


A. vo merij ormis 


Calytkrix tetragona 




Epacris impressa 




Platylobium obtusangulum 


Grevillsa lavandulacea 


Pimclca spathulata 



Ilibherlia sericea 




II. strict a 





Gali nia psittacorum 

Pimclca octophylla 

Melaleuca gibbosa 


Tel rat heca piles a 

Pcrsooma : }uniperina .. 

Dillyjy n ia hispid a 


Eutaxia microphylla 

Prcclithites quadridentala .. 


s.A. NAT.. VOL. J. 

May, 1929. By E. II. Isin 


Undershrubs and Ground Flora. 

Bossiaea prostrata o 

Viola Sieberiana o 

Opercularia varia o 

H otorrhagia tetragyna o 
//. teucrioides 

Trachy mene het erophylla o 

Paiersonia longiscapa o 

Juncus pallidas o 

/. bufonius fa 
/. pauciflorus 


Lepidosperma semiteres o fa 

A. laterals o 

Gnaphalium Japonicu?n r 

Acrotriche semdata fa fa fa 

Kennedy a prostrata o 

Goodenia primidacea fa o 

\7. affinis fa 

Scaevola microcarpa la o 

Dtanella revoluta o o 

Zo mandra dura o o o 

G o mp/z o/ofr i » wi ?ni y/ ^ j o 

Olearia Huegelii la 

FUlars ia exalt at a o 

Burchardxa umbellata la o o 

Theme da austral is o 

Dirhopogon strictiis o 

Helichrysum scorpioides fa 

Erythtaea spicata o 

Lobelia gibbosa o 

\\ ahlenbergia gracilis o 

/y ypericu m Japon lev, m r 
Bartlingia sessilifiora r 

Microtis porrifolia o 
^ J/, airata u 

Tkelymitra pauciflora o 
Helichrysu m Baxteri 


Mitrasacme distylis ja 

Parasite. * 

Cassvtha glabella 


South Ji 


S. V. \Ai'. VOL. 

May. 1929. 


'The essential oils of this species have been investigated by 
Baker and Smith (10) who state that "the average yield of oil was 
0.62 per cent. The crude oil was light orange-brown in colour, 
with an odour indicative of an oil belonging to the cineol-pinene 
group, with a secondary odour suggestive of the aldehyde aroma- 
tlendraL The presence of volatile aldehydes was particularly 
marked, The slight laevorotation of the crude oil is largely 
due to the aromadendral, although the pinene is also laevorota- 
tory to a small extent. Phellandrene was absent. The left 
rotation is unusual with oils of this class, as in most cases the 
pinene shows a predominant dextrorotation. The cineol con- 
tent is only fair, and the oil does not contain constituents having 
special characters. The species has, therefore, little value as an 
oil-producing tree Chief constituents: pinene, cineol, aro- 
madendral, sesqiiiterpines." 

J. Trans. Vict. Inst. 32 (1855). 

2. Crit. Rev. Gen. Eucalyptus, Tart XXL 16 (1914). 

3. L.c. Part LL 28 (1922)'. 

4. Trans. Roy. Soc. S.A. Vol. XL., 487 (1916). 

5. Forest Flora S.A. Vol. II. (1882). 

(-). Soil Survev and Forest Physiography of Kuitpo, S.A. Dept. 
For. Adel. Univ., Bull, (>,' 1918. 

7. Trans. Roy. Soc. S.A., Vol. XL VIII, 103 (1924). 

8. L.c. Part XXL. p. 17. 

9. Trans. Rov. Soc. S.A., Vol. XL, 497 (1916). 

10. L.c. 487. 

11. Rep. Woods and Forest Dept., S.A. 1915, p. 4 and Fig. 3. 
_\2. L.c. 1910, p. 5. 

EXCURSION TO HALLETTS COVE, April 16. 1929:— Dr. Fenner 
led a Urge party to the historic "Tate's Rock," the scene of the first discovery 
of glacial markings in this locality. The leader gave a most Interesting address 
on the Pernio Carboniferous glaciation and its resultant markings on the r<>ck:--. 
of Halleu's Cove, and dealt very fully with the changes of level in Tertiary 
times and the occurrence of fossils in the strata laid down. The party spent 
a most enjoyable afternoon. 

EXCURSION TO MONTAOJTE, April 25. 1929:— Owin- t o the 
threatening weather only a small number of members ventured to join the 
excursion. _ Under the leadership of Mr. W. Hani the party rambled up to 
the beginning of the Corkscrew Road and enjoyed the fine 'view of the 'hills 
scenery, from that point of vantage, 

Shell Club took charge of a well-attended outine. with Mr. W. }. Kimk-r as 
leader. The Outer Harbour is famous for the variety of its shells, and the 
party were successful in securing a number of species, which were named and 
described by the leader, who awarded prizes for the members obtaining the 
most rare species and the greater number of species respectively. A profitable 
afternoon was spent. 


8.A. RAT., VOL. X. 

May, 1929. T he Shell Club. 51_ 


The fortnightly meetings of this Club have been regularly 

attended, and a large number of specimens were reviewed. A 

W progressive study of Bivalve mollusca inhabiting our local waters 

has occupied most evenings since July, 1928, with further work 

remaining for future discussion. 


r J he oblong shells of this family have generally solid, equally- 
shaped valves, with three divergent teeth, and an external liga- 
ment. Certain representatives arc plentiful at the Outer Harbour, 
and collectors in this region soon discover that three can be 
grouped fairly closely together. The Club has provisionally de- 
cided to know these as — 

Marcia cor ru gat a — Lamarck. 
Marcia scalarina — Lamarck. 
Mar da aphrodinoides — Lamarck. 

M . corrugata is elongate oval, attaining a length of 2\ inches, 
I with blunt, well defined concentric ridges, running into each other, 
and crossed by radial striae, colour white. 

M. scalarina, which is predominant at the Outer Harbour, has 
sharp, well-defined, regularly-spaced, continuous concentric ridges, 
with no radial striae, colour varies from white to violet. Juvenile 
examples show chevron markings. 

M. aphrodinoides favour the mud Hats that appear at low 
tide in front of the mangroves around the river; much more in- 
flated than the previous specimens — the low concentric ridges 
barer, rise above the shell's surface. \o radial striae. The 
valves show little colour, except as, juveniles, interior dark violet 
or black. 

Marcia nitida is uncommon in this region, but is plentiful in 
the salt or brackish water at Onkaparinga mouth. This shell is 
somewhat inflated, and accuminate posteriorly. Colour brown, 
with broad rays. 

The V cnerupidae, unlike the Marcia (which revel in the soft 
muddy sands), favour a rougher environment, such as rock 
crevices, and hard mud banks, in which they burrow. The valves 
of some species are rough and shaped to suit their habitat, with 
sometimes overlapping valves. More or less frilled, and some- 
times with crenated edges. 

Vsnerupis diemenenns, Q. and G., is probably the commonest 
species in South Australia, and may be found in quantities among 
the shell debris cast up in such places as Middleton. A small, 
white specimen, with few concentric ridges, but with strong radial 



May, 1929. 

V . cumingii, Deshayes, lives in rock crevices along our coast- 
line. The left valve is generally included in the right. The con- 
centric ridges are closely spaced, with irregular radial striae. 

V. exotica, Lamarck, is a handsome specimen, moderately 
rare, about 1^ inches in length. The dorsal margin is almost 
straight. The valves arc concentrically ribbed, with well marked 
radial striation, evenly distributed, also with distinct frilling. 
White with brown markings. Sometimes found embedded in 

V . galactiteS) Lamarck, is common. Found living in the sand 
around seaweed roots, and similar environment. Its white valves 
are smooth, with very fine, closely spaced radial striations. Attains 
a length of I4- inches. 

V . crenata, Lamarck, is a fairly large inflated shell of irregular 
growth. Jt is commonly found in nests or burrows formed in hard 
clay banks, such as exist at the mouth of the Onkaparinga River. 


Hon. Secretarv, m 

April, 1929. S.A. Shell Club. 


The Smithsonian Reports for 1927, including papers 
>n the following subjects: — 
''Soaring Flight . 

''Palaeontology and i [urnan Relations." 
"Accomplishments 1 ii Modern Astronomy." 
"Charles Doolittle Walcott/' 
"William Healey Dall." 
* "Fried rich Km"/, Artist -Explorer.*' 
"Indian Villages of S.E. Alaska." 
"Archaeoogy m China." 
"The Origins ol the Chinese Civilization." 
" i lie Evidence Bea^.ng on Man*s Evolution." 
"The Mind ol an fnseel 
"The Distribution of Fresh- Water Fishes." 
"At the North Pofe." 
"Bird Branding in America." 
"Recent Developments in Cosmical Physics." 

" J he Evolution oi Twentieth Century Physics." ^f 

"Isaac Newton." 

"Th* Centenary of Augustin Fresnel/' 
"'Ihc Nucleus '-I" the Atom." 
"The Coming oi the New Coal W\" 
"Is the Earth Growing Colder?" 
"Geological Climates." 
"Geologic Romance of the Finger Lakes." 
^'Fossil Marine Faunas as Indications of Climatic Coaditbns." 
"Notes onthe Principles and Process (if X-ray Examination .if Paintings" 
"Lengthening oi Human Life in Retrospect and Prospect." 

"The Australian Forestry Journal. "" December and March numbers. 
'The Queensland Naturalist." March Number. 
'Taper;; and Proceeding? of ta* liovj Society of Tasmania for J928 

The South AustralianNaturalist 

The Journal of the Field Naturalists' Section of the Royal 

Society of South Australia and of the South Australian 

Aquarium Society. 



aug. 1929 

ie Trees of Adelaide Streets 

Publication of 
v Flora of S 






The authors of papers are responsible for the facts 
recorded and opinions expressed. 

Addrew of the Section: C/o Koyal Society '» Room*, IagtitvU 
Buildiog, North Ttrraeo, Adalaid*. 

Published Quarterly 

Single Copy NINEPENCE 

Obtainable from Cole's Book Arcade, No. 14 Bundle Street, 


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OFFICERS, 1929-30. 

Vice-Chairmen: Rev. H. A. GUNTER and Mr. F. K. G 
Ho Mr. ERNEST H. ISING, S.A. Railways, Adc 

U Secretary; Miss J. M. MURR 
, V. DIX. c/o Harbours Bi 
:n and Magazine S Miss ROEGER. 

Pr, D. J. McNAMARA, 


Professor J. B. CLELAND, !. MORISON, W. H. SELWAY, 



Fauna and Fiord Protection Commit- 
Professor. J. B. CLELAND. Dr. C. FENNER, Mi-: 

K, J. F. BA . M. LEA, F. ANGEL, W. 


W. J. KIMBER, ( A. WHITE, and Mr L. MAC1 

ian Naturalist 7 ' Fa 

\delaide. . 



t. Ising. 


The President 
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2 — Botanic Ga Mr. 

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Stellar I 

ng. — 1. 
2. Mr. E. I 

rof R W 


S. Thomas, "Native Timbers." 
3. Mr. 


South Australian Naturalist. 


AUGUST, 1929. 

No. 4. 



( Emeritus Profcssi »r oi Geology, I nivers-ity of Adelaide ; author 
of "( leology oi South Australia/' "The Building i 
Australia," etc.. etc.) 


The liiinan Valley is the type district in South Australia for 
the glacial phenomena of the Permo-Carboniferous age. Fhe 
valley forms a part of an extinct glacial field oi much greater ex- 
tent, having its known limits from Victor Harbour in the ; ath, 
to Halletts Cove in the north. Kangaroo Island and Yorke Pen- 
insula on the west, to the Murray flats on the east. The [nman 
and Hindmarsh \ alleys were originally one and < A pre-glacial 
origin. In consequence oi the great depth oi the origina [nman 
Valley, which has been proved to have been at least 1500 feet, 
with ragged scarps on either side, t he glacial features a r : of a 
unique kind, equalling, if hot exceeding, t he glacial ren ains of 
this age in any other part o! the world. 

r J he 1 nman \ alley, which crosses the Fleurieu Peninsula 
almost from sea to sea. has an average width oi five miles, and 
with the exception oi its termini at the respective sea coasts, is 
almost enclosed by rocks of greater age. Those on the northern 
side form the elevated plateau of the Hindmarsh Tiers in a height 
of over 1200 feet above sea level. 'Inwards the north-western 
side of the valley, the rocks arc of a granitic type of the Pre- 
Cambrian age, while the rest belong to the Adelaide Series which 
rests unconformably on the former. A junction of the two series 
is well exposed at the Grey Spur, on Grossman's property, reached 
by the road that crosses the river a little to the westward i :" the 
s ' mile-post from \ ictor Harbour. 


Geology of the Encounter Bay District, 

S.A. NAT.j VOL. X. 

August, 1929 

The snow-field that was the gathering ground ot the great 
ice-sheets, lay to the southward of the present continent, where 
there is now deep water. This sunken land-mass was probably 
In the form of an upland plateau consisting mainly of granite and 
other igneous and metamorphic rocks that formed the core of a 
mountain range of which only the roots remain. In its passage 
northwards, the ice-sheet, rounded oft all the prominences in its 
way , 5 craped off the summits of Granite Island. Rosetta Head. 
Wesl Island and King's Point, flooded the Inman Valley, and 
flowed over the adjoining heights. 

The thickness of the ice-sheets is indicated by a bore put 
dowr in the "Back Valley Creek, which after passing through glac- 
ial moraine material, struck bed-rock at a depth of 964 feet, prov- 
ing that the ancient valley floor was at least at such a deptli. The* 
ice readied a level that covered the Inman Hill which is nearly 
900 feet above sea-level, and Strangways Hill, which is still higher, 
so that the thickness of the ice could not be less than 1,500 feet 
The floor over which the ice moved consisted ol a very hard 
siliceous quartzite, which has been deeply grooved, scratched and, 
polished, under the grinding action of the glacier. In every 
instance where the floor and sides of the valley have been re- 
centh exposed, these effects can be seen. 

Some very fine ice-smoothed hummocks {roches moutonnee) 
can be seen near the residence of the late Air. D. H. Cudmore, 
at the beginning of the Hindmarsh Valley, also the conspicuously 
isolated Croziers Hill, on the north side of the main road, soon 
after entering the valley. This hill is a beautiful illustration of 
ice-action on a gradual slope, ploughed by the ice on its advancing 
side, and "plucked" in a broken face on the lee. 

The lower reaches of the Inman are choked with moraine 
sand transported by the river, but higher up, numerous examples 
of the glaciated rock floor can be seen in the bed and sides of the 
stream. At the road crossing the river, already referred to, a 
fine exposure can be seen at an acute bend of the stream. This is r 
undoubtedly, the ice-polished rock seen by Selwyn in 1859, the 
first example of a glaciated rock recognised in Australia. 

The erratics are a remarkable feature throughout the valley, 
both for numbers and great size. They form an interesting 
group in the shallow water at Encounter Bay. including one on 
the shore that is 23 feet in length. They show in great number 
in the moraine trail from Rosetta Head to Glastonbury Hill at 
the entrance to the Inman Valley. They arc particularly num- 
erous along the northern side of the valley where the ice ploughed 
into and over the scarps of the Hindmarsh Tiers, and can be 


S. \. NAJ., VOL. 

August, 1929. 

By If. HouKhin, F.R.G3 


traced over the watershed of the Bald Hills into the valley on the 
other side. The moraines o! A fount Brecken, near \ ictor Har- 
bour, and King's Point facing \\ est Island, with their large er- 
ratics showing in the rill, are as typical as could be seen anywhere. 

It is remarkable thai in these low latitudes there should he- 
remains <»! two ol the most intense lee \ges that the world can 
show. Although separated by many millions ol years, the newer 
(Inmanian) tillite rests directly on the older (Sturtian) tillitc 
which it has ploughed up and carried forward in large masses as 
erratics — a unique feature nowhere else seen in the world. 

1 lie ice having travelled over a region largely composed 
of granite rocks, the moraine material transported by the glacier 
consisted largely of triturated quartz and other crystalline 
minerals. Where a granite subsoil has been long exposed to the 
chemical action of atmospheric gases and stir I ace organisms it 
passes up into a fairly productive light soil, but il the surface soil 
consists of fresh and little altered crystalline fragments it is 
particularly sterile. The moraine material, as laid down, was 
;reshi\ ploughed up from the unaltered rock and laid down in- 
great thickness, and for ages has been protected from atmos- 
pheric influences and without contact with vegetable and other 
organic material, so thai in its natural condition it is partly 
supplied with plant food. The vallev that was once choked to 
the brim with this material is now being slowly re-excavated By 
rain and river, and in exposed situations the soil' gets little chance 
of enrichment. This is seen in the sandy hillocks and com- 
paratively bare slopes so characteristic ol the district. The pre- 
ponderance o! quart'/ sand leaves the soil open to a full circulation 
of water and, thereby, becomes leached ol" organic and soluble 
ingredients, leaving the soil poor. Where the soil is in contact 
with older and more diversified rocks, the weathering of the latter 
feeds the soil which gathers richness from the blend'. So. again, 
the rivers and creek fiats subject to Hoods, are similarly enriched 
d'\d made productive. The lower members of the moraine are of 
a more argillaceous kind and form a stiff soil characteristic of a 
typical "till," which when mixed with the overlying sandy material 
makes a good soil, while the clay in its natural condition, by its 
retentive qualities, causes swamps in places*. 'These contrasted 
conditions of habitat have led to local segregations in the flora 
and the formation of plant communities clearly referable To the 
kind of soil in which they grew. 



s.A. NAT., VOL. X. 

Augusi L929. 


The eucalypts of Australia are generally regarded as .■ rming 
about three-quarters of the vegetation of our Continent, -:■; s t"he 
Economic Chemist" of the Technical Museum, Sydney, Mr. \. R. 

F.C.S., i n an a rticle i n I he J unc \ u i . 
Forestry [ournal " from which the 



Penfold, F.A.C.] 

"The Australian 
article is extracted. The writer goes on to say that, though known 
as "gum-trees" the) give out no gum, the exudation being in the 
nature of an astringent tannin, properly termed '"kino." Endemic 
only to the mainland and Tasmania., and not occurring naturall) 
even as far afield as New Zealand, they are grown in rn [lions in 
New Zealand, South America, South Africa, India, and. especially 
in California, U.S.A. One of the first natural products exported 
from Australia was eucalyptus oil. This was in 1708. 

The name "eucalyptus" is derived from the two Greek words, 
"eu" meaning "well/ 3 and "kalypto" meaning "I cover.' the 
reference being to the lid (operculum) which seals the fl< wer until 
it is thrown oil during the process of opening, and it is this 
characteristic feature which distinguishes the genus eucai} plus. 
There are over 300 species known. 180 species have been examined 
for essential oils, but only 20 yield oils of commercial value. Of 

s. tn- 
iou of 

these Eucalyptus cneonfolia (the narrow leal malice oi 
Island is one of the best). It is said that 1.000 lbs. 
yield about 20 lbs. of oil, containing nearly 60 per cent 
or eucalyptol, the principal constituent oi the medicinal 
dustrial oils used in the flotation processes tor the see 
minerals contain another constituent, jdi el land rem 1 hese in- 
dustrial oils also find an extensive use in the preparation ol dis- 
infectants, boot polishes, etc. Other eucalvpls yield oils 'a re eh' 
used in perfumery. From Eu. cit r'uxlora, of which there are some 
specimens growing in our Botanic ( Jardens, citronella and rose 
ods are produced. 

A recent development is the production of very effective 
disinfectants possessing very pronounced germicidal properties 
as well as a more pleasant odour. Thymol, a very powerful 
antiseptic, and Menthol are being produced, from various 
eucalyptus oils. Menthol is used in pharmacy, and very ex- 
tensively in confectionery. 

s.a. mat., vol. x. 
August. 192 c >. 

7V*« 0/ /7i<: Adfialdr Struts, 


o : 

* V 

Our readers may be interested to read the following extracts 
from a report by the City Gardener, Mr. A. W. Pelzer, F.R.H.S. 


In considering the trees growing in the City streets it is to 
be remembered that they are growing under unnatural conditions. 
To assist them they are specially prepared when in the nursery 
by being frequently pruned in order to induce the growth of 
fibrous roots, so that the}" may be the better able to withstand 
drought and similar unfavourable conditions. 

As the result of experience it has been found that the follow- 
ing trees are the most suitable for planting in City streets: — 

English Ash Tree (Fraxinus); Nettle Tree (Cekis); Plane 
Tree 'PlatanusJ; Honey Locust Tree '(CAad\tsvh\a)\ and 
Varnish Tree {Kolrcuteria) . 

O: the foregoing, the three first named have the advantage 
o! a very long leaf period. The English Ash is an excellent tree 
in this respect, as it is in leaf more or less during some nine 
months out of the twelve. The Pagoda (Sophora) and Xettle 
(Csltis) trees also have long leaf periods, that of the remaining 
three being somewhat shorter. 

The \\ hite Cedar (Melia) in some respects is suited to street 
planting, but the berries which fall from it are an objection as 
the} are a source oi danger on paved walks. 

Trie Robinia inermis, with the globe shaped crown, which 
may be seen growing in the playgrounds, would be a suitable tree 
for planting in narrow streets but for its unfortunate tendency to 
send up suckers. The six kinds which ! have referred to as 
suitable for street work have not this tendencv. 


r l he following trees have proved themselves adapted to local 
conditions : — 


;ciduous. — In addition to those already mentioned foi 
street planting, the Elm Tree (Ulmus), Tree of Heaven (Ailan- 
thus), Acacia Tree (Robinia), and White Poplar Tree (Populus) 
give satisfactory results in park lands, 

S.A. NAT., VOL. X. 

58 Trees of the A delaide Streets. August, 1929. 

Of the cver-greens, the Carob Tree (Ceratonia), Jacaranda 
Tree {Jacaranda), Camphor Tree {Camphor a), [Currajong Tree 
(Sterculia), Flame Tree (Br achy chit on) , Coral Tree {Erythrina); 
Moreton Bay-fig Trees, both large and small leaf, have proved to 
be well adapted .to local conditions; of Sheoak Trees, the species 
Casuarina glauca succeeds well on limestone and brackish soils. 
The Conifers are of value from an ornamental standpoint for 
planting in round spaces, particularly in view of their symmetrical 
form, and the following species have been found to do well on 
the park lands ; — 

Norfolk Island Pine, Austrian Pine, Stone Pine, Aleppo Fine, 
Canary Island Pine, Cedrus, and Cypress, The species Cedrus 
also grows well on selected sites. 

Of gum trees the Lemon scented gum (/;. citriodora) when 
planted in good deep soil, the \ ate gum (E. cornuta), Sugar gum 
( E. cladocaly x), and Tuari gum ( Eucalyptus gomphocephala) 
all grow well in suitable localities on the Adelaide Plains. The 
Scarlet, flowering gum can be grown success! ully, but onl] in 
certain localities. The same applies to the Red gum (E. rostrata), 
which requires a deep rich soil, while the Tuart gum, which is 
a very hardy species, will grow on limestone soil. 

Regarding the Fig Tree {Fiats nitida) growing in the grounds 
at the Terminus Hotel, North Terrace, and the evergreen Oak 
{Quercus Ilex) in Government House Domain, specimens ol both 
these trees may be seen growing in the City gardens, the former 
in Elder Garden, Victoria Square, and the West Park Lane.- and 
the Evergreen Oak in Osmond, Angas, and East Terrace Gardens, 
both species are hardy and give very good results. 

The Flame Tree is thriving well in Whitmore, Wellington 
and Victoria Squares, Osmond and North Terrace Gardens. 


"The Flora of Encounter Bay," by Professor Cleland, which 
has been published serially in the S.A, Naturalist, is to be issued 
i\\ the Section. !n addition to the articles by Professoi Cleland, 
there will be an account ol the geology ol the district near \ ictor 
Harbour, written by Professor Howchin, and illustrated with 
plates. The pamphlet will be on sale shortly. 


S.A. NAT. VOL. X. 

August, 1929. Revie w. S9 


Bign() \iiac e ac-C ompos'ilue . 

|. \I. Black, Lecturer in Botany at the University oi Adelaide. 


i'his is the concluding pari, of the flora, anil Mr. Black is to 
be heartilj congratulated on its successful completion. 1 he Flora 
has been eight years in preparation and must have entailed an 
enormous amount oi work m the examination ol specimens and in 
locating some of the types. A large number of new species and 
varieties and new combinations have been created by Mr. Black, 
and excellent descriptions have been drawn up for each. Fhe 
task of delving into the extensive botanical literature and deciding 
which was the earliest name given to our plants places Mr. Black 
is the leading authority in Australia on Australian botanical 
nomenclature. To show what: difficulties the systematic b tanist 
meets reference may be made to Melothria micrantha (p. 543). 
This plant was first named by Mueller in 1855 as Cucurbit a 
micrantha } in 1859 Naudin created the name Cucumis Muelleri 
for it and Bentham referred to it as Melothria Muelleri. Three 
genera are thus used in which to place this species and the author 
had to decide which was the correct one (as each has d Finite 
limits) and deciding on the latter one the specific name ti 1 accom- 
pan} it must be that first used no matter what generic name wai 
ai i ached to it. A similar procedure had to be adopte I with 
Rutidosis nntiliflora (see p. 639). The completed work contains 
almost 700 pages of plant descriptions, with indexes oi scientific 
and popular names, so that the Mora is ol practical use not only 
to the botanist but to gardeners, students and oi hers as well. 
Following the custom in all recent floras the weeds and F< ireign 
introduced plants are delineated, and exceptionally large num- 
bers of drawings of these are given. C rardeners, orchardists, 
nurserymen, etc.. should find the booh valuable on this account. 
Mot every plant has been given a popular name, but where one 
has become established 1 hrough general use it has bee ; given. 
This pari is well illustrated, and the keys to the genera and species 
are most helpful. 

Plates \(>s. 4 and 5 are reproduced here as samples oi 
the illustrations used, and the whole ol the .~>4 plates and the 
338 figures were drawn by the author himself. The value anil 
practical use oi the Mora is wonderfully enhanced by these, and 
the) reveal Mr. Black as an artist oi extremely high attainments. 
The practice ol illustrating the generic differences in the families 
has again been utilised in this pari, and they immediately follow 
the description ol the tannb itself. 

rhe South Australian Naturalist, Vol. X., No. 4. 
Plate 4. 

.T/« 7 ) 

Eremophila neglecta, J. M. Black, 
Block lent by courtesy of Royal Society oi S./l.) 

The South Australian Naturalist, Vol. X., No. 4. 
August 1929. 

Plate 4. 

FrorjQ "The Flora of South Australia." Part IV. 
/. M. Black. 


* s 


Plate S. 

W w ¥ 1 v 







A /, 



II Ofl um i 

Compositae. I pper part: of styles (all much enlarged). 
(Block kindly lent bv courtesy of Government Fruiter.) 

From "The Flora of South Australia.''' .Part IV. 
/. .1/. Black. 

S.A. NAT.. - . I. 

62 Rtvuw. August, 1929. 

'The treatment oi Eremophila in fvfyoporaceae is satisfactory 
as it is better to place all the species under thai genus, tvher< 
they have been for so long, than to place some under Pholid\ i 
and others under Stenochtlus) a certain amount oi confusion is 
thus obviated. Mr. Black has created four new species in this 

In the family Campanulaceae Pratia has been separated from 
Lobelia to fall into line with the greal majority oi botanists. In 
Good en i ae the species ol Goodenia are accompanied by ex- 
cellent descriptions and G. geniculata has now been satisfactorily 
divided into several distinct species, vi/.., G. prxmidacea, G. affinis 
and G. robustd. 

The extensive and somewhat difficult order Compositae has 
been thoroughly revised and well illustrated. Drawings oi the 
most difficult parts ol the [lower to examine, the style and anthers, 
have been given m many ot the genera, The excellent keys to 
the tribes and genera, as well as a tine series ol drawings, will be 
of great assistance to the sysi em at ic hoi anist. Br achy coin*, u 
well illust rated b\ draw irxgs ol ripe I ruil s, and five species are 
named by the author. Calotis is illustrated in a similar manner, 
as in the former, the remarkable barbed awns or pappus ol this 
genus is well shown. Twenty-seven species oi Qlearia have been 
listed and have been transferred from Aster, which is nol con- 
sidered an .Australian genus. The everlastings (27 in Helipterum 
and 23 in II eliclirxsum) form a large section, of which Mr. Black 
has described a number ol new species. Quite a number of 
alterations in the names of. various species had to be made in this 
family, and among the introduced genera illustrations are more 
numerous. Through recent work ol specialists in England on the 
grasses, Mr. Black has added eleven pages ol new arrangements 
and notes in this family. Altogether 54 pages of additions and 
corrections have been added, the h lor a now comprises 2,450 
species ol which 2.064 are indigenous, and 730 genera ol which 
580 genera are native plants. A map ol the State, showing rail- 
ways, rivers and the principal towns, concludes the work. 

: o ; — E.H.I. 

Kangaroo Island. 

Dr. J. B. Cleland and Mr. J. F. Baile} (members of the 
Fauna and Flora Board ). reporting to t he Chairman ( Dr. E. 
Angas Johnson) on an official visit to Flinders Chase, Kangaroo 
Island, say that, kangaroos and wallabies seem to be in wishing 
in the enclosure, and are abundant outside. A native bear wai 
seen some months ago. Cape Barren geese and emu.- seem ' > 
be doing well. The visitors saw where the platypuses had been 
liberated, but failed to locate them. 


3.a. nat., vol. x, 
August, 1929, 



May 18, 1929. 

A party of field naturalists visited Waterfall Gully to study 
gorge flora, under the guidance of the Secretary (Mr. E. H. Ising). 
During the walk from the terminus of the Burnside tram. Mr. \\ . 
Ham drew attention to the geological features oi the narrow 
ravine, pointing out the bedding planes, the joint planes, the dip 
and the contortions of the strata, the uplift or sinking oi the 
layers, faults and the character of the rocks, lie also explained 
how the tall had regressed up the valley as the softer rock decayed 
and was carried down by the stream and new faces were exposed 
■ o the action of weather and running water. In the upper 
the rocky faces were precipitous and a cross section would show 
■-. V-shaped cleft, due to the grinding action of fragments carried 
oy the rapid waters, but lower down the gentle lapping ol the 
water had rounded the banks into a wide trough, which finally 
subsided into the plain. 

The road was lined with. English hawthorn, and m one place 
•tj peared the native raspberry (Rubus par vif alius ). Weeping 
willows (Salix babylonica) , were much in evidence, and a garden 
of magnificent chrysanthemums was admired. A feature that 
caused some comment was the diversity ol vegetation on the slopes 
and on the ridge. While fall gums were conspicuous on the heights, 
the rounded sides ol the gorge were clad with sheoak (Casuafiiia) . 
Or. the eastern slopes banksia and eucalypts flourished. Between 
second falls a species of wattle (Acacia rheHuodes), 
said" or "Warilaa" was beginning to par forth its 
The woi 'My tea-tree ( Leptospermum ) was also ob- 
served. The stringybark, with its rugged covering, was growing 
here at an elevation ol about 800 feet or less, though seldom seen 
a! a lower level than 1,300 feet. This tree, named b\ FTTeutier, 
a French botanist [Eucalyptus obliqua), from its unsymmetrical 
leaves, was first observed on Captain Cook's voyage, The 
peculiarities oi the gorge flora are d\ii' to the abundance of 
moisture and the shelter of the steep-sided gully. 

Other plants observed included Solanum > of the same family 
as t lie deadly night-shade. Siegesbeckia, and Leptospermum 
pubesce?is } with grayish leaves and downy seedpods; the Austra- 
lian "blue bell/ 3 which flowers all over the Slate ; the coarse 
kangaroo grass, a valuable fodder that in early days extended oi cr 
.he greater part oi South Australia, and still flourishes along the 
hills rai.hva\ line, where the ground has been undisturbed, also 
Isfpidosperma (scale seed), a species of sedge. 

the hrst an 
known a; 

S.A. NAT, , VOL. T . 

64 Excursions. August, 1929. 

June 3, 1929. 

On the holiday Mr. Suttton, ornithologist of the Museum, 
conducted a party over the scrub near Warpoo, between Lyndoch 
and Sand)' Creek, where they examined the rich and varied bird 
life of that picturesque locality. An enjoyable and profitable time 
was spent, and 25 different species were observed. 

June 15, 1929. 

A large party spent some pleasant, hours at the Museum,. 
under the guidance of Mr. IJ. M. Hale, the assistant director,, 
and his colleagues, Messrs. A. M. Lea and \. B. Tindale. Near 
the entrance Mr. Hale called attention to some coils oi "Feather 
Money," i'rom Mexico and Santa Cruz, in beautiful colours, and 
valued at £80. A mummified baby from the Kiver Murray was 
pointed out. '^Ginseng/' a plant highlj esteemed by the Chinese' 
for its medicinal properties, was represented by some (.tried 
specimens. A substance believed to be ambergris, with the charac- 
teristic black nodules, might be worth anything from £4 an ounce. 
'1 he witch plant mentioned in ( Jenesis, "mandrake" (so named' 
from its quaint resemblance to a human embryo) is used as a 
base for various perfumes. Mr. II. M. Hale next illustrated from 
a number of specimens the evolution ot the backbone From the 
first rudiments ol a notothord. Mr. A. M. Lea, the Museum 
Entomologist, showed a very varied and comprehensive collection 
of insects, both Australian and foreign. 

June 29, 1929. 

A party of held naturalists proceeded to Morialta on a 
botanical excursion, conducted by Or. J. B. Cleland. The intro- 
duced plants, including- sugar gums (E. chuiocalxx ), Acacia 
Bailcyana, A. podalyrifolia, and many others were making great 
headway, the latter species of wattle being in full bloom. Differ- 
ing species ot vegetation marked varying heights and situations.. 
Down near the running stream the stately Forms of the red gunv 
(i'.. rostrata) were conspicuous (the specific term is an allusion' 
tc the seed capsules, shaped like a beak or rostrum). These fine- 
trees usually favour a moist situation, and often outline the course* 
o! a creek. Higher up the so-called blue gum (or yellow gum), 
1.. leucoxylon, lilted up his leafy crown with E. odorata (pepper- 
mint) intermingled. A. fasciculosa (with its seed pods in. bundles 

i.A. NAT,, VOL. X. 

August. 3929. 




01 fasces), and E. wmincdis (manna gum, with short, conical seed 
pods)) were also observed. Leptospermum lanigerwrA (woolly 
tea-tree) grew on the bank lining the road. Among wattles of 
indigenous growth. Acacia rhetinodes and A. contlnua flourished, 
but not yet In flower; also A. rupicola. Towards the summit the 
gentle breeze sighed among the cones and branches ; i the 
('.usuaniio, stricta (sheaoak). Two species oi X anthorrhoea, or 
•j\ ass tree or vacua. A . quadra?igida£a and A . semiplana, were 
noted. The wild hop. Dodonaea iAscqs& 3 had grown into a large 
shrub. A plant rarely found in the I not In lis. Halorrhagis 
Brownii, rewarded the researchers of the part)-. The Spyridium 
has small whitish floral leaves, which, resemble the petals 
of a Mower. Anthocercis (ray flower) has a white wheel- 
shaped corolla, the lobes giving it the generic name, and the 
narrow leaves give the specific description (angustijolia }. 1 he 
wild cotton bush is an importation from America, and was accom- 
panied by a. peculiar species of moth, [mperata cylindrica was 
once considered capable oi producing paper pulp. Banksia 
m@rginata grew al a low elevation. A bearded grass, Andropogon 
(manly beard) is common in the foothills. Cotrea rubra (popu- 
larly known a.s native fuchsia) and Hardenbergia or wild lilac, 
were in Sower. Among orchids were observed the dainty green- 
hood, PterostyliSj with Glossodid and Aciantkus. The -car let 
runner (Kennedya prostrafa) was not yel decked with its bright 
ix^d blossoms. Another remarkable plani is the flame heath (Astro- 
Iowa conoslephundcs) . Many other species ol native plants were 

The party greatly admired the striking regularity oi the huge 
layers oi Cyclopean masonry that bound the valley near the first 
fall, and the sparkling grace ol the aptly-named bridal veil water- 
fall. An account o! t his romantic glen u puld not be c< implete 
"without some slight tribute to the engineering skill and good taste 
with which the steep and. winding paths and the rustic bridges and 
hillside chalets have been constructed, so as to harmonise with 
the picturesque surroundings, and consuh the convenience of 
visitors without being undulv obtruded on the view. 


July 13, 1929. 

Field \ai una lists, led In Mr. W. J. Kimber, explored the 
'beach north of the Semaphore fetty. Some strange zig-zag, well- 
defined tracks were noticed near the water. On following these 
up the part) discovered a remarkable mollusc, known to science 
as a Pollinices conica. These insrenious creatures ven cleverh con- 


S.A. NAT., VOL. v. 

66 Excursions. August, 1929. 

struct worm-shaped tubes of minute grains of sand, in which the' 
female deposits thousands of eggs. Several specimens of Halioiu 
lid Or cover, which closes the mouth of the valves, also afford,-. 
evidence of wonderful adaptation. Several specimens oi Hatioth 
cyclohates, or mutton fish, were found. These molluscs were a 
favourite dish with the aborigines, and the sites of their camps. 
especially in Tasmania, are marked by great heaps oi the empty 
shells. Both the interior and exterior are nacreous. The SigarHus 
ZOH&lis has a large loot, so large that it cannot, like some othei 
gasteropods. withdraw wholly into its shell, which covers only the 
vital parts. Nerita melunotragus is an edible mollusc known as 
the black winkle, and is a palatable morsel. Tts operculum, 01 
lid. is worth observation. Bavkivia is a small mollusc usually 
found in populous communities on beaches such as the Outer 
Harbour. Their remains form peculiar pink ridges. Mactra pura 3 
the largest S.A. mactra species is a beautiful white shell, and is 
prized by anglers for bait. M. Auslralis. a smaller blue variety, 
is good lood. A so-called gastropod, the Vermetus, is a worm-like 
mollusc, which does noi move about on a "stomach, foot," but 
attaches itsell to other shells or rocks. A tube-building worm had. 
left some oi its .handiwork on the beach in the shape of a tube 
about two inches long, constructed o! microscopic sand grains,, 
cemented bv a sticky secretion. Through an ordinary magnifying 
glass the glittering grains could be clearly seen. SUiquaria australh 
has a strange slit through its entire length, serving the purposes 
of respiration and exeeretion. Thcdotia conica is a very pretty 
brown shell, belonging to the trochidae, or top shells, all noted 
for their beauty. Another of the same family is Phasianotrochus 
belluluSj possessing also brilliant colouring and exquisite markings.. 
An Avxcula or butterfly shell, is the only representative in South 
Australia of the pearl shell mollusc. The Murcx is a relative of 
the shell Irom which the ancients obtained the famous "Tyrian 
purple." The Solemya australis, peculiar to the continent, has 
a remarkable periostracum, or covering, not wholly composed of 
carbonate of lime. An interesting find was a cluster of egg 
capsules of Sepia apama, a decapod, or ten-footed cephalopod, 
common!}" known as the cuttlefish. This creature is a favourite 
food oi tlie predatory sharks, and for that reason would soon be 
exterminated but for its marvellous fertility, a striking instance 
:;■[ how a persecuted organism (plant as well as animal) manages 
to survive and propagate its kind by the abundance of its offspring, 
although millions die. 

Mr. Harding showed a perfect specimen of a large sponge 
formation, usually called from its shape "Neptune's cup." This 
consists of the skeletons of countless numbers of poivps, which 

S.A. N-Vl 


VOL. X. 





S" f. 

V \ 

live together in common. These polyps arc lined with cilia, or 
fine hairs, whose constant oscillation sets up a current in the 
water. With tiny inhalant syphons they bring- food to the com- 
munity and eject the indigestible matter with another set, the 
jxhalani syphons. 


The following members would like to arrange excha.^c of 
1c :aj shells with foreign correspondents : — 

Mr. F. L. Saunders, Arthur Street, I nicy. 

Miss Kentish, Riverside School. Fitzroy. 

Mr. Harding, c/o Barlow's. Port Adelaide. 

Miss Wayne, Port Road, Hindmarsh. 

Mrs, Pearce, Capper Street. Kent Town. 

Miss Roeger, Gaza. 

Miss V. Taylor, 95 Grenfell Street. Adelaide. 

Mr. Godfrey, Robert Street, South Payneham. 

Air. Br'oadbent, Epworth Building, Pirie Street, Adelaide. 

Rev. H. Gunter, Payneham. 


May 21, 1929. 
By Mr. R. YV\ SEGNIT, B.Sc. 

1 in' lecture was illustrated by lantern slides, depicting- the 
configuration of the lands visited and their fauna and flora. 

Mr. Segnit gave a general outline of the geographical position 
■ ■ the Spitzbergen Islands and their relation to the mainland of 
Europe, the track followed by the warm Gulf Stream from the 
equator to the .Arctic, its influence on the temperature and climate 
of Spitzbergn, and a brief summary of the history and scientific 
results of previous expeditions. The composition and objects of 
the expedition were dealt with, and a description was given of the 
journey north, winch was started in 1921, and included a forced 
stay of ten days on 'Bear Island, situated approximately 200 miles 
from Spitzbergen. The lecturer dealt with Spitzbergen topo- 
graphy, giving an explanation o! its geological features, its tectonic 
uplifts, fjords, glaciers, and the various stages in the general 
retreat of the ice. The expedition had been particularly educative 
from a botanical standpoint, there being no less than 196 species 
o\ mosses and 68 species of lichen existing in the islands. The 
flora included a great number of Arctic species. Sixty-five species 
of birds were known to inhabit Spitzbergen, and interesting results 
to the zoologist in the study of mating, nesting, and breeding 
habits of some of the birds, particularly the red-throated diver 
and purple sandpiper, had been obtained. 


.a. nat., vol. x. 
August. 1929. 


The Show will be held in the 'Town Hall as usual on October .<' 
[Oth and 11th. Members are asked to make preparations and to ^r 
bring such natural history exhibits, etc., as they can secure, and 
are invited to help in the work of preparation on the 'Thursday 
evening, October 10th. 

The prizes for painting are arranged, as follows: 
A — For Central Schools only: 

(1) Water Colour Painting; prizes of 7/6 and 5/-. 

(2) Art Designs; prizes of 7/6 and 5/-. 
B — Op'en to all Amateurs: 

Prizes for Water Colour paintings only ; 10/6 and 

The subjects arc to be native flowers or designs based upon 
jiative flowers, etc. 

o : 


The Australian Naturalist.* March, 1929. 

The Victorian Naturalist." May and June, 1929. 

"Notes on Certain Species of Thclymitra. " by W. H. Nici 

iii teres ttng discussion of the various species of this beaut 

of orchids. 

Journal of the Royal Society" of Western Australia," Vol. XI\ . 

Journal of the Arnold Arboretum of Havar.d." January and Apri 

The South Australian Ornithologist" July. 1929. 

Annals of the Polish Zoological Museum."' 

The John Crerar Library Annual Report" for the Year 1928," 

Sturt Centenary, 1829-1929." Issued by the Dept. of Lands a 


J Sir 

s an 




o : 


I. "The Australian F 

orestrv ourna 

Tunc. 1929.